10 julio, 2024

Zacatecas natural resources

The natural components of Zacatecas are its geography, climate, flora, fauna, hydrography and natural resources, which together make up the region’s ecosystems and environment.

Zacatecas is a state located in the north-central zone of Mexico, it has an area of ​​77,000 square kilometers, which makes it the eighth largest state in the country.

Despite its large size, Zacatecas is the eighth least populated state with 1,700,000 inhabitants. The low number of people with respect to its surface area is mainly due to its desert climate, its scarce rainfall and its poor hydrography.

Components and natural resources of Zacatecas

A considerable part of the surface of Zacatecas is part of the Chihuahuan desert, which is characterized by arid, dry climates and fairly low levels of rainfall.

The state is divided into 4 geographical regions: The Sierra Madre Oriental, La Masa del Centro, The Sierra Madre Occidental and the neovolcanic axis.

The northern zone of Zacatecas has extremely hard and infertile soil where agriculture is difficult to develop.

However, in the southern zone the conditions are more favorable, causing agriculture to be one of the important economic activities of the state. 27% of the state area is devoted to agriculture.


Zacatecas is located in the central plateau of Mexico, which gives its relief many mountains and hills, although only 3 of these exceed 3,000 meters.

Despite the fact that the state is located between a plateau and a desert, there are several types of soils such as scrub, grasslands, forests and jungles.


The general climate of the area qualifies as dry semi-desert. However, there are 4 climatic regions that include dry desert, semi-desert, sub-humid and semi-dry climates.

It is in the area of ​​the Sierra Madre Occidental where a slightly rainy and tropical (sub-humid) climate is observed, in the other areas the climate is much drier.


Flats with a dry climate abound, such as scrub (which cover 30% of the state), cacti and aloe vera. In the areas with higher altitude and rainfall, pine trees and coniferous forests can also be found.


As in many parts of Mexico, Zacatecas presents an amazing animal biodiversity. Deer, bears, cougars, coyotes, eagles, snakes, sheep, and turkeys are found in this state.

Despite having a dry climate, Zacatecas has several sources of water in sufficient quantity for these species to subsist.

Natural resources

Mining is another of the important economic activities in this region, especially thanks to its deposits of silver, copper and zinc.

Regarding agriculture and livestock, it is possible to find corn, beans, oats, barley and cattle, sheep and pigs.


The hydrography is quite scarce, there are very few rivers and deep water channels and of an important channel.

Furthermore, Zacatecas is landlocked. This factor hinders the practice of agriculture, since some of the most important hydrographic reserves are found underground in aquifers and deep wells.


Hydrology of the State of Zacatecas (nd). Recovered from For all Mexico.
The Agriculture of Zacatecas (nd). Recovered from NTR Zacatecas.

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