9 julio, 2024

What is the name of the document prepared by Francisco Villa?

He document prepared by Francisco Villa was the drafting of the General Agrarian Law. The Mexican Revolution began with the rise to power of Francisco Madero, with the support of Francisco Villa and Emiliano Zapata.

But the development of the Madero government did not seek the emancipation of the people, and even less the distribution of land for the popular classes.

Madero drew up the San Luis Plan, which only mentioned what could be done with the vacant land. This made Emiliano Zapata ignore the Madero government and launch into another fight, with the motto «land and freedom.»

After the fall and assassination of Francisco Madero, a new phase arrived, the Constitutionalist Revolution, led by Venustiano Carranza.

The so-called Guadalupe Plan, promulgated by him, did not seek the vindication of the people either, since it did not foresee any social or economic change.

This is how great differences arose between the two caudillos: Carranza and Villa were enemies. These differences led to the convening of two conventions.

The first was in Mexico City and it was a failure. The second was established in Aguascalientes. It ended with Francisco Villa’s ignorance of Carranza’s authority.

For his part, Carranza ignored the assembly of revolutionaries, causing a rupture between the two caudillos.

The document prepared by Francisco Villa

It was in this revolutionary assembly that Francisco Villa and Emiliano Zapata merged their ideals for the first time. Here the third phase of the Revolution began, the proletarian class represented by Villa and Zapata, against the bourgeois class, defended by Carranza and Obregón.

Francisco Villa produced a document that favored the dispossessed.

The two sides met in the battle of Celaya, and the people’s army was defeated. When Villa found out that the Carranza government was seeking recognition from the North American State, he made public the document he had drawn up for the equitable distribution of land.

General Agrarian Law

The General Agrarian Law that Francisco Villa elaborated, as general in chief of the conventionist army on May 24, 1915, in Guanajuato, stated in its main points:

The existence of large territorial properties is considered incompatible with the peace and prosperity of the republic. Consequently, the state government, during the first three months after the law is issued, will proceed to set the maximum surface area of ​​land that can be owned by a single owner” (art. 1).
“The division of large territorial properties in the excess portion of the limit that is set is declared of public utility. The governments of the States will expropriate, through compensation, said surpluses. The surrounding lands of indigenous peoples will also be expropriated to the extent necessary to distribute them in small lots among the inhabitants of the same towns who are able to acquire them” (art. 3).
“The expropriation of the land necessary for the foundation of towns in the places where a group of farmer families has permanently congregated is also declared to be of public utility. Springs, dams and water from any other source will be expropriated if the owner does not use them” (art. 5).
“It is established that the alienations will be for consideration, with the most favorable payment terms and conditions for the purchasers” (art. 12).

Said law was elaborated by the lawyer Francisco Escudero, and dictated by Francisco Villa. He gave the dispossessed a piece of land to work, but not for free, but for consideration, that is, through payment. With facilities, and also providing them with the necessary accessories to be able to cultivate.

This law never came into effect.

References

The Agrarian Law of General Francisco Villa. Recovered from books.google.com.ar
Francisco Villa’s manifesto to the people of Mexico. Recovered from en.wikisource.org
Agrarian Law of General Francisco Villa. Recovered from museodelasconstituciones.unam.mx

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