7 junio, 2024

What are the quantitative properties of matter?

The quantitative properties of matter They are characteristics of matter that can be measured -temperature, mass, density…- and of which quantities can be expressed.

The physical properties of matter are characteristics of a substance, which can be observed and measured without changing the identity of the substance. They are classified into quantitative properties and qualitative properties.

The word quantitative refers to quantitative information or data that is based on quantities obtained through a quantifiable measurement process, ie any objective basis of measurement. In contrast, qualitative information records qualities that are descriptive, subjective, or difficult to measure.

To understand the quantitative term, it is necessary to understand that its opposite, the qualitative properties, are those that can be observed through the senses: sight, sound, smell, touch; without making measurements, such as color, odor, taste, texture, ductility, malleability, clarity, luster, smoothness, and condition.

Conversely, the quantitative physical properties of matter are those that can be measured and assigned a particular value.

Often the quantitative properties are unique to a particular element or compound, and the recorded values ​​are available for reference (they can be looked up in tables or graphs).

Any quantitative property implies a number and a corresponding unit, as well as an associated instrument that allows it to be measured.

Examples of quantitative properties of matter

Temperature

It is a measure of the warmth of a substance with reference to a standard value. It is the kinetic energy (motion) of particles in a substance, measured in degrees Celsius (°C) or degrees Fahrenheit (°F) with a thermometer.

Melting point

The temperature at which the change from solid to liquid state occurs. It is measured in degrees Celsius (°C) or in degrees Fahrenheit (°F). A thermometer is used to measure it.

Boiling point

The temperature at which the change from liquid to gaseous state occurs. It is measured in degrees Celsius (°C) or in degrees Fahrenheit (°F). The measuring instrument is the thermometer.

Density

Amount of mass in a given volume of a substance. The density of water is 1.0 g / ml, and is often the reference for the other substances.

It is measured in grams over cubic centimeters (g/cm3), grams over milliliters (g/mL), or grams over liters (g/L). And the method of marked volumes is used.

Conductivity

Conductivity capacity of a substance to conduct electricity or heat. If it is electricity it is measured in Ohms (Ohm) and if it is for heat it is measured in Watts per Kelvin meter (W / m K). A multimeter and a temperature sensor are used, respectively.

pH

The ratio of water molecules that have gained a hydrogen atom (H3O+) to water molecules that have lost a hydrogen atom (OH–).

Its unit goes from 1 to 14 indicating the amount of H3O+. Indicators (chemicals in solution) are used to measure pH, which are added to the tested solution and react with it, causing a color change at known amounts of H3O+.

Solubility

The amount of substance (called the solute) that can be dissolved in a given amount of another (solvent).

Commonly measured in grams of solute per 100 grams of solvent or in grams per liter (g/L) and in moles per liter (mol/L). To measure it, tools such as a balance and the method of marked volumes are used.

Goo

The resistance of a fluid to flow. It is measured in Poise (P) and in Stokes (S). And its measuring instrument is called a viscometer.

Hardness

Ability to resist scratch. It is measured with hardness scales, such as Brinell, Rockwell, and Vicker; with a durometer set to the desired scale.

Mass

It is the amount of matter in a sample and is measured in grams (g), kilograms (kg), pounds (lb), etc. And it is measured with the scale.

Length

It is the measure of the length from one end to the other and the most used units of measurement are centimeters (cm), meters (m), kilometers (Km), inches (in) and feet (ft). Ruler, indicator, odometer or digital micrometer are the measuring instruments.

Volume

It is the amount of space occupied by a substance and is measured in cubic centimeters (cm3), milliliters (ml) or Liters (L). The method of marked volumes is used.

Weight

It is the force of gravity on a substance and its units of measurement are newtons (N), pound-forces (lbf), dynes (din) and kiloponds (kp).

Time

It is the duration of an event, it is measured in seconds (s), minutes (min) and hours (h). A clock or stopwatch is used.

Specific heat

It is defined as the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1.0 g of a substance by 1 degree Celsius.

It is an indication of how quickly or slowly a certain mass of an object will heat or cool. The lower the specific heat, the faster it will heat up or cool down.

The specific heat of water is 4.18 J/g C and is almost always measured in those units (Joules over grams per degree Celsius). It is measured with the calorimeter.

heat of fusion

It is the amount of heat needed to melt exactly a certain mass of that substance. The heat of fusion of water is 334 J / g and, like the specific heat, it is measured with the calorimeter and is expressed in Joules over grams per degree Celsius.

heat of vaporization

It is the amount of heat needed to exactly vaporize a certain mass of that substance. The heat of vaporization of water is 2260 J/g (Joules over grams per degree Celsius). It is measured with the calorimeter.

ionization energy

It is the energy necessary to remove the loosest or most distant electrons from an atom. Ionization energy is given in electron volts (eV), joules (J), or kilojoules per mole (kJ/mol).

The method used to determine it is called atomic spectroscopy, which uses radiation to measure the energy level.

Themes of interest

General properties.

extensive properties.

intensive properties.

Properties of matter.

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