7 junio, 2024

What are the elements of gymnastics? (15 types)

Some of the most common elements of gymnastics they are the balance beams, the horse vault, the floor, the parallel bars, the pommel, the rings, the jumps and the bridge, among others.

Many acrobatic and tumbling moves are gymnastic elements in artistic gymnastics. In all types of gymnastics an element is a skill with points and associated penalties in the points code of the competition rules.

In the different types of gymnastics there are other movements performed by gymnasts during an exercise that do not have a score and are not elements themselves.

list of gymnastics elements


It is an acrobatic discipline that combines some of the skills of artistic gymnastics with those of trampoline gymnastics. Sometimes it is practiced on a track about 25 m long.

It was developed from tumbling performances performed by performers a while ago, but is now part of a sport and is codified, regulated and judged using special acrobatic equipment.

Many elements are practiced in floor exercises by participants in both men’s artistic gymnastics and women’s artistic gymnastics.

Some elements of tumbling such as the round-off and jumps with multiple rotations are integrated into balance beam routines.

Layout or iron

In this position the gymnast’s body is fully extended, with fingers extended and legs straight.

A plank in the tumbling, on the balance beams or in the vault is performed in this position.

round off

This move is similar to a star spin, except that the gymnast lands with both feet together on the floor instead of one foot at a time, facing the finish line.

This gymnastics technique changes horizontal speed into vertical speed and can be used to transform running momentum into backward momentum.

star turn

It is a rotational movement of the body. It is performed by bringing the hands to the floor once at a time while the body is inverted.

The legs travel over the torso while one or both hands are on the floor, and then the feet return to the floor one at a time. The movement ends with the performer standing upright.

Opening of legs or split

In an element consisting of a position in which the leg is in line with the other and the legs are extended in opposite directions.

When performing a split, the lines defined by the inner thighs of the legs form an angle of about 180 degrees.

This exercise involves a lot of stretching, so it requires a lot of flexibility in the leg muscles. Additionally, it is also used as a warm-up exercise.

Horse jump

This element of artistic gymnastics is developed in an apparatus in which the gymnasts perform. Both male and female gymnasts participate in this discipline.

To participate in this element, the gymnast runs down a track and then jumps on the horse with his hands.

Gymnasts are expected to land cleanly, without any extra jumps or steps. Additionally, they must demonstrate good technique and execution. Falls and extra steps are penalized.

balance beam

The gymnast performs a choreography of about 90 seconds consisting of jumps, acrobatic skills, twists, dance elements, and somersaults on a padded bar.

The bar measures about 125 cm from the ground and is 500 cm wide. This discipline requires balance, grace, flexibility and strength.

Mortal jump

In an acrobatic exercise in which a person rotates 360 degrees in a horizontal axis with the feet passing over the head.

A somersault can be performed forward, sideways, or backward, and can be executed in the air or on the ground. When performed on the floor it is called somersault.

floor exercises

This event is held on the 12 meter by 12 meter padded floor. Gymnasts perform choreographed routines of about 90 seconds, often to the beat of a song.

The routine must consist of tumbling passes with some aerial element without hand support, somersaults of different types, simple jumps, turns and dance elements.

double unders

The back double jump is the simplest form of double jump. Double jumps can be performed forward or backward; They can be made in folded position, collected or in the form of a plate.

The most complicated form is to perform a twisting plank double vault, in which the gymnast does a complete twist with each turn of her somersault.

pommel horse

It is performed only in men’s artistic gymnastics. It is a bar in which gymnasts perform exercises in the air that involve the legs while they are supported with their hands on the horse.

It is considered one of the most complicated events in gymnastics.

somersault or rolls

It is one of the most basic elements of gymnastics. There are many variations of this ability; The rolls involve a complete rotation of the body, but the rotation of the roll is usually performed on the floor. Rolls also help recover from a fall.


This element involves placing both hands on the floor and one leg on the floor, then kicking the other leg into a full split.

Uneven bars

This apparatus is only used in women’s gymnastics; it is made of metal. The bars are positioned at different heights and widths, allowing the gymnast to move from bar to bar.


This element is basic in the uneven bars, although it is also performed in the men’s high bar. The kip is an important skill that is used both when riding and as a connecting element in a bar routine.

The kip allows the gymnast to swing under the bar to arrive in a front stand on a bar. The slipped kip is the most commonly used item for riding on the women’s uneven bars.

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