7 junio, 2024

The 4 Parts of an Essay and its Characteristics (with Examples)

The Parts of an essay They are the introduction, the development, the conclusion and the bibliography/references if they are necessary. Essays are short nonfiction compositions that describe, clarify, discuss, or analyze a topic.

Students can find essay assignments in any school subject and at any level of school, from a personal experience “vacation” essay in middle school to a complex analysis of a scientific process in graduate school.

Generally, essays are written from the personal point of view of an author. The trials are not fictitious, but are often subjective. They can be literary criticism, political manifestos, arguments learned, observations of daily life, memories and reflections of the author. Almost all modern essays are written in prose, but there are works in verse that have been called essays.


Questions to know if an essay has been developed correctly

As we have said, an essay is made up of an introduction, a development, a conclusion and the references/bibliography. To know if it has been developed correctly, you can ask yourself the following questions:

– The introduction

– Does the essay have a good opening/introductory paragraph?

– Is the topic clear?

– Do you know what the intention is?

– The development

– Is the body of the essay ordered? Are the ideas in the best order?

– Does the writer present strong arguments/evidence?

– Are the writer’s arguments convincing?

– Does the writer give enough evidence?

– Do the paragraphs have a meaningful sequence?

– The conclusion

– Is the conclusion clear?

– Does the conclusion confirm the thesis?

– Does the conclusion give the reader closure?

– The references

– Have the sources and bibliographical references used for the essay been cited correctly?

Parts of an essay and its characteristics

– Introduction

An essay begins with a short introduction, which prepares the audience to read the essay. An effective introduction should:

– Grab the reader’s attention. This can be done for example by using a direct announcement, a quote, a question, a definition, an unusual comparison or a controversial position.

– Introduce the topic of the essay. It is about informing the reader and providing a context of the subject matter.

– The idea to be explained is clarified. This can be done as a hypothesis. For example, one could say: «The steps of the scientific method They have been important for the reliability and validity of the investigations, however it is worth asking if with the new technologies and the new society it would be necessary to review them”.

– Introduce the purpose of the essay. You can inform, persuade, argue, describe, narrate… Example: «With this essay I intend to describe how pollution is really affecting heart disease…».

Introductions can explain a situation or can give an opinion:

a) Situation introductions

The current situation of a problem, event, research, etc. is explained, and what will be developed next is discussed.

It also can:

-Explain the situation in the past and at present.

-Explain the situation in different places.

-Explain the situation in different people or in different conditions.

b) Opinion introductions

Opinion leads explain what the author thinks about a particular topic. He can give different opinions, from different people, at different times…

Lastly, if you are having trouble thinking of an introduction, leave some space (enough for three or four sentences) and write it later after writing the body or conclusion, giving you a better idea of ​​the topic.

– Development

The paragraphs of development will suppose approximately 70-75% of all the text. In this part the main idea (thesis or affirmation) of the essay will be developed. An effective body paragraph should:

– Explain, illustrate, discuss or provide evidence to support the main idea (thesis or claim) of the essay.

– Correct division of paragraphs. One paragraph leads to another in a fluid way, so that the reader understands more easily.

– Work together with the other body paragraphs to support the main idea of ​​your essay.

– Work together with the other body paragraphs to create a clear and cohesive document. Clarity and consistency can be achieved through the use of transitions.

The body/development of the essay should always be divided into paragraphs. You should never write a single long paragraph, as white space makes the essay easier to read. Also, having paragraphs shows that the writer has the ability to relate the different ideas of the topic in a single essay.

In the development, the thesis/hypothesis is defended or the opinion/situation is clearly explained, providing research, references and other data.

In order to correctly connect ideas, and thus link the body paragraphs, there are the following examples of transition words:

To list different points:


For counter examples:


For more ideas:

In addition to.
Related to.

To show cause and effect:

As a result of.

– Conclusion

An essay ends with a short conclusion, which brings the essay to a logical end. An effective conclusion should:

– Provide closure for the reader by reviewing the main points, linking the main idea of ​​the essay to a larger theme, predicting an outcome related to the main idea, giving an opinion, or using a quote that helps summarize an essential aspect of your essay. main point.

– Remind readers of the main focus of the essay, which can be done by repeating the main idea in different words.

– Avoid introducing new ideas.

– Avoid apologies.

The conclusion is the end of the essay. It is a short paragraph of about three sentences. It often has the same idea as the introduction, just in different words.

A good conclusion restates the question, summarizes the main ideas, gives the writer’s opinion (if he hasn’t already given it), looks to the future (explains what will happen if the situation continues or changes), but never adds new information.

– Bibliographic references

Bibliographic references must include the author of the publication, the title of the article or book, the web page, publisher or scientific journal, date and sometimes the exact pages where the information was taken.

Parts of scientific essays

A scientific essay is characterized by seeking to disseminate information in a formal way, with emphasis on the depth and objectivity of the content. The fundamental parts of a scientific essay are the following:

– Front page

The cover of a scientific essay must include the title of the work, the name of the institution that endorses said research, the name of the author of the essay and the date on which it was published.

Regarding the title, in the case of scientific essays it should be as explanatory as possible, so that readers quickly understand what the theme that is developed in the essay is.

– Index

The list of contents should appear in the index, organized schematically, to facilitate the reader’s search. This element may or may not be part of a scientific essay; When essays are published on the Internet, they often do not have an index.

– Summary

The abstract of a scientific essay is very important, since it offers abbreviated information on the most important aspects of the investigation.

In the summary, the reader can quickly find out what the objectives of the research were, why it is important, what methodology was used, what experiments were carried out or what were the results obtained. The summary allows, first hand, the reader to understand the importance of the content of the essay.

– Introduction

Sometimes it can be confused with the summary; however, the introduction is a separate element that constitutes the presentation of the theme that is developed in the essay.

Through this element, the aim is to arouse the reader’s interest in the content of the essay, as well as to emphasize the relevance and influence of the information contained therein. That is to say, it is very important to contextualize the problem dealt with, so that the reader understands that it is a subject that affects him, to a greater or lesser extent.

In the introduction, the main objectives of the research are briefly stated, as well as the hypotheses that are proposed. The wording of the introduction should invite the reader to continue reading, without giving too much information that makes the reader feel that they no longer need to read the essay.

– Development

This is the core of the essay. In the development, the intention is to expose the entire procedure carried out in the research work, emphasizing the objectives set and the theoretical framework used to support and validate scientific research.

In a scientific essay, the language used must respond to the characteristics of the field of science, but this does not imply that a way must be found to ensure that the content can be understood by various audiences.

For this, a good option is to use similes and comparisons with other everyday situations or elements, so that readers can relate scientific concepts that can be complex with other more familiar scenarios.

In scientific essays, references to other legitimate sources that support the research carried out are very important. These references can be quoted verbatim, placing the content in quotation marks, or they can be paraphrased, generating an interpretation of what is stated by a specific author.

Although there are references to other works, it is important to remember that a scientific essay must be a text that provides new knowledge, based on the contributions or explanations of other academics, but generating new and original information.

– Conclusions

This is the most important part of the essay, since it represents the result of the investigation. At this point it is advisable to return to the problem posed at the beginning of the essay and give it an answer with the solutions found.

The conclusion allows to link the development of the essay with the conflict raised at the beginning of the investigation. Absolute conclusions may not have been reached through the investigation; In this case, the conclusion will present those new questions that have arisen as a consequence of the experimentation.

– Research sources

This part is necessary within a scientific essay, since these documentary sources are the ones that will give more veracity and objectivity to the content of the essay.

The names of the books, articles, reviews or other elements that were used to carry out the test should be listed, as well…

Deja una respuesta

Tu dirección de correo electrónico no será publicada. Los campos obligatorios están marcados con *