8 junio, 2024

The 24 most famous and important biologists in history

We leave you a compilation of the most famous biologists and important of all time, along with the most emblematic contributions to the world of science.

The job of a biologist involves the study of living organisms and their relationship with nature. They seek to understand the mechanisms of living beings through the study of their origin, habits and genetic structure.

The field of biology has produced important discoveries over the centuries: from vaccines to theories about the origin of life on our planet. Wonderful discoveries that have improved not only our knowledge of nature but also the quality of our lives.

The history of biology and its protagonists originates in ancient Greece and reaches our time. Curiosity framed by scientific rigor has been a key element in the successful work of scientists from very different eras and places.

The most famous biologists

1. Hippocrates (460-370 BC)

Greek scientist, known as the father of Western medicine, wrote About the doctora guide that indicated the way in which a doctor should treat his patients.

It also gave rise to the Hippocratic oath, which doctors use to this day as part of their practice.

2. Aristotle (384-322 BC)

In ancient Greece, this scientist was the first to categorize animal life based on its characteristics. He proposed two groups, the «animals with blood» and the «animals without blood» as part of what he called the Natural Scale.

Many of his theories remained valid until the 19th century.

3. Gregor Mendel (1822-1884)

A German-born scientist, Mendel worked with plants, peas, and bees to test his theories about genetics.

He is considered the founder of genetic science and the discoverer of different laws on genetic patterns, today known as Mendelian inheritance.

4.Louis Pasteur (1822-1895)

The pasteurization process used on milk and some other beverages owes its name to this French-born biologist. He conducted experiments that helped prove the disease theory, which he proposed that diseases are caused by microorganisms. He was a founder of the field of microbiology and creator of vaccines against anthrax and rabies.

5. Alexander Fleming (1881-1955)

Noted Scottish biologist and pharmacologist who contributed to the development of antibiotic drugs through his discovery of penicillin, from mold penicillium notatum.

Fleming’s work brought new hope to humanity in dealing with various diseases and treating bacterial infections. He received the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1945.

6. Charles Darwin (1809-1882)

Known for his Theory of Evolution of Species, this English biologist concluded that all living species come from common ancestors that evolved over millions of years. This process of evolution he called natural selection. He published his theories in a book called On the origin of species.

7. Antoine Lavoisier (1743-1794)

Best known in the field of biology for his work on metabolism, this French scientist experimented by attaching a calorimeter to a guinea pig to measure its heat production. He performed other experiments on combustion.

8.Robert Hooke (1635-1703)

Born in England, Hooke coined the term cell. He studied microscopic fossils, which allowed him to advance the theory of biological evolution. He was a successful author, with the publication of his book micrographia in 1665, which included illustrations of microscopic images, such as the eye of a fly.

9. Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564)

Known as the modern father of human anatomy, Vesalius disproved several ancient theories about the human body. His analysis of the human skull was the basis of biological anthropology, which studies the evolution of the human species over time.

10. Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723)

Dutch biologist, considered the father of microbiology, was the first scientist to speak of unicellular organisms. Among the organisms he observed are blood cells and sperm. He built himself the microscopes that he used in his studies.

11.Joseph Priestley (1733-1804)

This English biologist is considered to have been one of the discoverers of oxygen. He is also credited with inventing carbonated water, by dissolving heavy gas in water.

This discovery earned him the Royal Society Medal in 1733. He was also the first biologist to document photosynthesis.

12.Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829)

French biologist and naturist, author of the first theory of the evolution of living beings. He is considered the father of invertebrate animal paleontology.

13. Edward Jenner (1749-1823)

Born in England, Jenner developed the first experimental vaccine to prevent smallpox. He was the one who proposed the term vaccine and is therefore known as the father of immunology.

14. Alexander Von Humboldt (1769-1859)

Founder of the field of biogeography, the study of ecosystems and species across geographic and temporal spaces. In his honor, the belief that the most modern and precise resources should be used when collecting data during experimentation was called Humboldtian science.

15.Robert Brown (1773-1858)

Scottish botanist who analyzed nearly 2,000 species of plants. He discovered Brownian motion, which occurred when he placed pollen grains in a container of water and noted that they moved without any kind of observable stimulus.

16.Claude Bernard (1813-1878)

This French biologist proposed carrying out blind experiments to carry out studies and helped the scientists of his time obtain more objective results. Bernard also conducted studies on the human pancreas, liver, and nervous system.

17.Joseph Lister (1827-1912)

As a professor of surgery, this Englishman introduced the idea of ​​sterilizing instruments using carbolic acid to prevent infection. He became known as the father of antisepsis thanks to his discoveries. He improved techniques for performing mastectomies and knee surgeries.

18.Thomas Hunt Morgan (1866-1945)

Geneticist of American origin, unraveled the connection between miosis and genetic segregation. His discoveries about genes and their location on chromosomes helped turn biology into an experimental science. He was the winner of the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1933.

19. Ernst Mayr (1904-2005)

Known as the Darwin of the 20th century, this German scientist attempted to solve Darwin’s problem of species by publishing Systematics and the Origin of Species.

Mayr sought to expand his ideas about evolutionary biology. His work and his discoveries were a great influence for the formulation of later theories, such as the theory of punctuated equilibrium.

20.Erwin Chargaff (1905-2002)

This Austrian biologist is known mainly for his discovery of two rules related to the structure of DNA and its formation in the form of a double helix.

He found that some substances within the structure of DNA are comparable to other different substances. He also discovered that the composition of DNA varies between species.

21.Rachel Carson (1907-1964)

American-born marine biologist who worked to warn the public about the dangers of pesticide use. Her work helped create the Environmental Protection Agency.

He published several volumes on marine life early in his career. He later dedicated himself to helping change government policies on the use of some pesticides.

22. George Beadle (1909-1975)

American geneticist who showed, by means of radiation of mold spores Neurospora crassa and the monitoring of the resulting mutations, that the mutations induced in the genes corresponded to alterations in specific enzymes.

This discovery aided in the acceptance of the one gene/one enzyme hypothesis. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1958.

23. Lynn Margulis (1938-2011)

US-based biologist specializing in the origin of eukaryotic cells. She established the hypothesis that HIV AIDS is not a virus of infectious origin, a hypothesis that is under study and is yet to be verified.

24. Frances Oldham Kelsey (1914-)

American scientist, member of the FDA (Food and Drug Administration or Food and Drug Administration in the United States). His work prevented the commercialization of thalidomide in the United States, saving the lives of thousands of children. He led the movement that resulted in tighter regulation of drug distribution.

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