8 junio, 2024

The 21 Most Relevant Literature Technicalisms

The literature technicalities are those words that refer to exclusive terms of the literature. There are technical terms for all areas of man’s knowledge.

The technicalities arise due to the need to name elements, phenomena or tools of each particular area.

Since they refer to very specific terms that are not frequently used in everyday life, they are usually limited to the professional world to which they belong. In literature, technical terms refer mostly to literary resources.

The main technicalities of literature

1- Anaphora

This is a fairly common resource in poetry. It consists of the repetition of a word or concept at the beginning of the sentence or verse.

It gives sound and rhythm to the sentences, which is why it is useful as an aesthetic element to attract the reader.

It should not be confused with the anaphora concept of linguistics. The poem Someone by Teresa Ternavasio is a good example of anaphora:

«Someone arrives
someone is leaving
someone says wait
that he will be back soon.»

2- Polysyndeton

It is a literary resource that is also based on repetition, specifically of prepositions. With this repetition the tension is accentuated as the end of the text approaches.

It is a resource commonly used in poetry, but it is also present in the narrative.

The following sentence is a good example of polysyndeton: «I am not a communist or a socialist or a liberal or an anarchist or a developmentist or a progressive or a conservative: I simply am».

3- Epithet

They are qualifying adjectives that are distinguished by defining or describing an intrinsic aspect of the subject. That is, it does not seek to make it stand out through the description, but only to characterize it. It usually precedes the subject it describes.

The exception that contradicts these two characteristics occurs when an epithet is used in the name of a great ruler, such as Alexander the Great. In this case the function of the epithet is to highlight and it is placed after the name.

The following verses, written by Garcilaso de la Vega, contain examples of epithets:

«For you the green grass,
the cool wind,
the white lily
and pink color
and sweet spring wished…”.

4- Alliteration

This is a phonic resource that consists of the use of similar sounds in the same sentence. It is commonly used in tongue twisters and riddles, although it is also common in poetry.

For example, the following verse by Rubén Darío uses an alliteration: «With the wing aleve of the slight fan.»

5- Asyndeton

While the polysyndeton consists of the repetition of prepositions and conjunctions, the asyndeton is about omitting them even when they correspond when using enumerations.

Prepositions are replaced with commas. In this way, the text acquires a certain fluidity when it is read.

An example of this resource is the following phrase by Abraham Lincoln: «The government of the people, by the people, for the people.»

6- Irony

Irony is a literary figure that consists of implicitly implying the opposite of what is explicitly said.

It is based on the combination of context references to communicate the implicit meaning. For this reason, it is necessary that both the reader and the writer handle similar references so that their intention is fulfilled.

7- Onomatopoeia

Onomatopoeia is the representation of sounds, not words. These sounds are natural expressions foreign to the language, but which communicate messages through their own code.

8- paranomasia

Paranomasia consists of the repetition of words with similar sounds in a sentence or text. For example: «With dice win counties.»

9- Paradox

It is a rhetorical form that consists of affirming a fact based on another contrary fact. The important thing is that the statement is fulfilled despite the arguments being contradicted.

For example, the saying «peace is achieved through violence» implies achieving peace through its opposite.

10- Ellipses

It is the omission of words that syntactically must be used, but that without them the sentence continues to make sense.

11- Simile

This literary resource consists of the association of two objects through an abstract resemblance. It is also called comparison.

12- Antithesis

The antithesis seeks to create contrast in the text by presenting two ideas or arguments that are contrary and confronting them.

13- Hyperbaton

The hyperbaton is the change of position in the sentence of certain words, not in order to modify the meaning of the sentence, but with metrical and aesthetic objectives.

For example, say «beautiful is your new house in the countryside», instead of saying «your new house is beautiful».

14- Personification

This is the assignment of human traits to inanimate objects. It is very common in children’s stories and fables, as well as in poetry as a metaphorical resource. For example, «the sun smiles at us.»

15- Euphemism

These are used to replace terms that may be offensive or have an indecent meaning.

It is also commonly used to replace words that are so sacred that they cannot be pronounced. Referring to an elderly person as “elderly” is an understatement.

16- Allegory

These are the conceptualizations of abstract themes in tangible figures for the social understanding of the term. They are made through metaphorical associations.

For example, the image of a woman with a blindfold and a scale in her hand to represent justice.

17- Parallelism

As a narrative resource, it consists of the narration of two events that occur at the same time.

In poetry it is broader, since it can be emotional, physical descriptions and even two metaphors treated in parallel. The following verse is an example of this resource: «While it rains outside, I cry inside here.»

18- Metonymy

This resource works by substituting a word for a different one, as long as both have the same meaning.

An example of common use is the saying «bring daily bread» to refer to food from home.

19- Epiphora

This is another resource that is based on the repetition of words. These are placed at the end of each verse, unlike anaphoras, which can be placed anywhere in the sentence.

20- Gongorism

Literary style of the Spanish Baroque developed from the poetry of Luis de Góngora, a notable writer of the 17th century. It is characterized by its difficult comprehension, its complicated metaphors and its language rich in vocabulary with excess of cultism.

21- Prosopopoeia

Rhetorical figure that tries to personify inanimate or abstract beings with human qualities and characteristics.

References

The technicalities of creative writing part I. (2015) writersblockmagazine.com
Technicality. (2017) collinsdictionary.com
Technicality. (2017) vocabulary.com
The Greek Lexicon; technicalities and hellenisms. resources.cnice.mec.es
Example of technicalities. (2017) examplesfrom.org

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