8 junio, 2024

The 11 Most Important Cultural Manifestations of Peru

The cultural manifestations of Peru They derive from the Inca heritage and their later mixtures with the white Spanish race, the black from Africa and the eastern from Japan. D.they stake the creation of objects in ceramics, lithosculpture, metallurgy and textiles.

In addition, expressions such as painting, architecture and a great diversity of traditional festivals where different types of music and dance are mixed.

Peru is one of the twenty largest countries in the world and has a great diversity of cultural manifestations also due to its geography. In this country there are three well demarcated regions: the coast, the mountains and the jungle. Each of them has a great cultural richness.

The cultural manifestations of Peru are kept alive mainly among Quechua, Aymara, Ashaninka peasants and other peoples of the Amazon.

Main cultural manifestations of Peru

1- Dances

One of the most traditional cultural manifestations of Peru is dance. The cultural syncretism developed in this Latin American region is evident in each dance sample.

There are various types of dance; one of them is the ceremonial dance, which is performed during rituals and is associated with activities such as irrigation, harvesting or planting.

Other types of dance are the ballroom, like the Peruvian Polka; and agricultural, which expresses man’s relationship with the land and its production.

There is also the carnival dance, which is mixed with ancestral rites, the sexual initiation of young people and the mating of animals; and, finally, the hunting dance, such as the Llipi Puli, which represents the hunting of various animals.

2- Music

Peruvian music is another cultural manifestation of great importance. It is not precisely related to the show but to nature, society and divinity.

To refer to music and dance, manifestations that Peruvians consider the same element, the word «taki» is used.

Various musical instruments were inherited from the Inca Empire, which later evolved by merging with others from Europe.

The best-known instruments are the pomatinyas, a kind of drum made from puma skin; and the guayllaquepas, trumpets made with strombus, a type of sea shell.

3- Gastronomy

Peruvian gastronomy is one of the main cultural manifestations of Peru; since 2003 Unesco recognized it as intangible cultural heritage of the world, and since 2007 it is considered national heritage.

Thanks to its originality, aroma, flavor, texture and variety, it has become one of the best cuisines in the world.

The chicken shops, the neighborhood chifitas, the picanterías, the anticuchos, the cevicherías and Nikkei cuisine, are the traditional places where it is possible to try dishes such as arroz chaufa, ají de gallina, the stuffed cause, the olluquito with charqui and the purple girl

4- Popular art

The largest celebration of popular art takes place in the Plaza Mayor in the city of Cuzco. There the artisans offer their works at very cheap prices.

In Peru there is a strong relationship with work, ancestors and the community to which one belongs. For this reason, in all the manual or artisanal products that are made, these concepts are printed in the form of drawings.

Families inherit for generations the development of manufacturing techniques for various artisan pieces, in which beauty and wisdom are combined.

5- Historical heritage

Peru preserves important buildings that are considered historical heritage of humanity.

The Machu Pichu Historic Sanctuary is one of them. It is an architectural work built in the year 1450, between the eastern slope of the central mountain range, south of Peru.

During the Inca Empire it was an important ceremonial center, but at some time it became the palace of the main leaders.

Another construction considered historical heritage is the Archaeological Center of Chavín, built between 1,500 and 500 BC.

Other important monuments are the Chan Chan archaeological zone, a city that was under the rule of the Inca Empire; and the sacred city of Caral, 5,000 years old. The latter is considered the oldest city in America.

6- Traditional festivals

The traditional festivals of Peru are related to religion and indigenous roots.

Among the most recognized festivals is that of Qoyllur Riti, a religious festival that takes place in the months of May and June, at the foot of the Ausangate snow-capped mountain, in the Cuzco region.

The renewal ritual of the Queshuachaca bridge, in the Cusco province of Canas, is also an important cultural manifestation of Peru. It lasts four days and is developed around a work model used in the times of the Inca Empire, known as «minka».

The Eshuva, the Feast of the Virgen de la Candelaria and Corpus Christi are other important traditional festivals in Peru.

7- Textiles

The manual elaboration of textiles is another cultural manifestation of Peru, developed since the pre-Inca period.

Peruvian textiles are famous worldwide for being considered authentic; the inputs used are highly valued, including alpaca fiber and Pima cotton. The most recognized is the textile from Taquile, in the Puno region.

8- Medicines

Traditional medicinal forms were for a long time considered a cultural manifestation in Peru, thanks to the conservation of indigenous traditions.

Currently, the diversity of medicinal plants is the input for the elaboration of allopathic medicines.

9- Crafts

Peruvian crafts have their origin in the ancient civilizations that inhabited the island, especially the Pucará, Tiahuanaco, Colla and Inca cultures.

The best known handicrafts are stone sculptures, ceramics and textiles.

10- Languages

Peru has more than 60 languages, of which 17 are Amazonian language families; these are subdivided into 39 different languages, with their own dialects. The Aymara language and Quechua continue to be the most used.

11- Traditional clothing

Peru is a very recognizable nation in the world for its traditional clothing. The ponchos, blankets, tunics, hats, chullos or dresses are usually very striking due to their colors and originality.

Cataloged as ethnic clothing, the thickness of most of its garments stands out to protect itself from the cold of areas such as the Andes.


Huntington, Samuel P. (1996) The clash of civilizations and the remaking of world order. Simon & Schuster, New York.
Mendez, Cecilia (1993) Incas yes, Indians no: notes for the study of Creole nationalism in Peru. IEP, Lima.
Matta, R. (2010). “L’indien” à table dans les grands restaurants de Lima (Pérou). Anthropology of food, 7, Retrieved on July 25, 2011, from aof.revues.org

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