16 julio, 2024

The 10 Most Important Heroes and Precursors of Peru

The heroes and precursors of Peru They were the characters who fought to achieve the independence of that country. They emphasize Simón Bolívar, José de San Martín, Tupac Amaru II, Juan Pablo Vizcardo y Guzmán, Francisco Antonio de Zela and the Angulo brothers.

Precursors are understood as the group of idealists, thinkers and conspirators who rose up against the Spanish empire before the War of Independence formally began.

Among the main heroes and precursors of Peru, the following characters stand out:

1- José Gabriel Condorcanqui (Tupac Amaru II) (1738-1781)

Descendant of Tupac Amaru I, he was chief of Surimana, Pampamarca and Tungasuca. He led the great rebellion of the natives against the Spanish in 1780.

Tupac Amaru II was defeated by the army of Viceroy Agustin de Jáuregui, in the battle of Checacupe, and vilely dismembered: traces of his body were left in the streets as a sign of defeat against the Spanish empire.

2- Juan Pablo Vizcardo y Guzmán (1748-1798)

He was a renowned Jesuit priest, who promoted the independence movement of Peru from Italy. He is the author of the famous letter to the Spanish Americans, published by Francisco de Miranda in 1799.

3- Francisco de Zela (1768-1819)

Peruvian soldier who led a rebellion in Tacna in mid-1811. This libertarian effort was considered at the time as the beginning of the independence process in Peru.

4- The Angulo brothers

Sons of Melchora Torres and Francisco Angulo, the brothers Mariano, José and Vicente led the independence rebellion of 1814, in the city of Cuzco.

This rebellion was supported by Mateo Pumacahua, a recognized defender of Spanish power, who decided to join the movement of the Angulo brothers, convinced by the solidity and conviction of their separatist ideas.

5- Jose de San Martin (1778-1850)

Renowned Argentine soldier who played a key role in the independence of Argentina, Chile and Peru. His beginnings on the battlefield were in Spain, when he fought against the invading troops of Napoleon Bonaparte in 1808.

Four years later, he decided to embark for South America, to assert his ideals of freedom and fight for the independence of his lands of origin.

After an arduous campaign for independence in Argentina and Chile, San Martín arrived in Peru in 1820, and a year later, on July 28, 1821, he proclaimed the independence of that country in the Plaza Mayor of Lima.

6- Simon Bolivar (1783-1830)

Outstanding Venezuelan military recognized as liberator of five Latin American countries: Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Bolivia and Peru.

Bolívar completed his military training in Spain and then returned to his country, where he led the independence process in Venezuela and Colombia.

In 1823 he moved to Peru and from there he organized the United Liberation Army. With these troops he consolidated the independence of Peru, thanks to the victories in the battles of Junín and Ayacucho in 1824.

The latter had the support of the Venezuelan general Antonio José de Sucre. The victory in the Battle of Ayacucho put an end to Spanish power in Peru.

7- Micaela Bastidas Puyucahua (1745 – 1781)

Wife of Túpac Amaru II, she was a great support for her husband. Bastidas was key to the Independence of Peru thanks to her courage, her courage, her determination for the rights of her compatriots and the advice she gave her husband.

She was executed by the Spanish, which made her not only a hero, but a legend of the Spanish-American struggle.

8- Mateo García Pumacahua (1740 – 1815)

One of the main rebels in the Independence of Peru. An official and military man, he was in charge of leading the troops in the Cuzco Rebellion of 1814. He was a hero to the indigenous people and fought for more than seventy years.

Finally he was captured and executed by the Spanish after fighting in various areas of the country such as Cusco, Arequipa or Puno.

9- Juan Santos Atahualpa (1710 – 1756)

Quechua ruler and leader of the independence struggle in the rebellions of 1742 carried out by the indigenous people. A man of great intellect, he proclaimed himself Apu Inca, who would become the ruler of the Inca Empire.

His rebellion was carried out with jungle troops, coming to settle in many of the territories colonized by the Spanish in the central highlands. His death is a mystery, since he disappeared under strange circumstances.

10- María Parado de Bellido (1777 – 1822)

Strong link during the Liberation Expedition of Peru led by José San Martín between 1820 and 1824. Despite growing up in a wealthy family, he decided to serve the cause of independence.

Its main task was to inform the patriots of the movements that the Spanish planned to carry out. She was discovered, but she never provided information or names of the patriots, which sentenced her to die by firing squad.


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Chunga, J. (2011). Precursors and heroes of Peru. Recovered from: ilustrados.com
Gomez, A. (2013). Precursors of the Independence of Peru. Recovered from: biografiacorta.blogspot.pe
Gomez, A. (2013). Heroes of the Independence of Peru. Recovered from: biografiacorta.blogspot.pe
The Independence of Peru: heroes (2015). The People’s Newspaper. Lima Peru. Recovered from: elpopular.pe
Peru: Achievement of independence (1999). Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. London, UK. Recovered from: britannica.com

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