8 junio, 2024

Textual prototypes: elements, types and examples

The text prototypes They are the ways of organizing and classifying the different models that a sender uses to elaborate a message, whether verbal or written. The textual prototypes are narrative texts, descriptive texts, dialogue, exposition and argumentation. Each of them contains a certain language and style.

The messages are organized into various structures, which have their own characteristics that help the receiver to identify the type of text and the sender’s intention, whether it is about telling an event, describing an object or asking for a favor.



The two main elements of textual prototypes are:

External elements. It refers to the way in which the content is distributed. They are observed with the naked eye: presentation of schemes, paragraphs, sentences, maps, etc.
internal elements. It is about the contents that give meaning to the text: the language used, objectivity, discursive styles, etc.

Properties of textual prototypes

In order for the message to be fully transmitted and each idea to be closed, the paragraphs have to be articulated with each other just like the sentences, keeping a relationship and an order. So that the prototypes comply with the properties of: adequacy, cohesion and coherence.

– Adequacy

Adapt the language so that it is understood and interpreted appropriately.

Topic: general, particular, dissemination or specialized;
Language: cultured, vulgar or colloquial;
Intention of the message: communicate, describe, instruct, amuse, etc.;
Formality level: Formal, serious, informal, humorous, etc.

– Consistency

Maintain a logical relationship between the background of the topic and the structure.

Linking sentences within paragraphs.
Organization of information, clear, simple texts, with a unitary or global sense, without contradictions.
Time: Progressive and correlative progress of events.

– Cohesion

Maintain a formality between the elements of the text.
Relate the words of the sentences that make up the paragraphs using appropriately the connectors, the punctuation marks.
Produce a linguistically appealing message, based on ideas expressed with meaning.

Classification of textual prototypes

They are classified into 5 models or prototypes, which are: narrative, descriptive, expository texts, dialogues and arguments.

– Narrative texts

The objective is to tell or recount a fact, written in prose.

They narrate a story or event, whether real or imaginary, following an order in time and space, using nouns, verbs, among other words. The main elements that are presented in a narrative are:

The narrator, who is the one who tells the facts.
The characters are the people, animals or things who are involved in the story.
The context: it is the environment where the story takes place.
Time: It is the moment when the events happened.

To present a narrative, it begins with an introduction, then comes the middle or development, which is where the plot and the end or denouement are presented, where everything raised in the plot is resolved and the story ends.

Example: One morning, when the sun came out, Maria looked out the window and saw that something moving in a tree came out of the house and came closer. She then she was able to contemplate some birds taking care of her nest; suddenly the wind blew very strong and the nest fell, she ran and ran to catch it down. Although she tripped over a large rock, she was able to save the little birds that had just been born there. End.

– Descriptive textsyes

The purpose is to identify objects, people, etc. in detail, subjectively or objectively. To describe is to indicate the characteristics of a person, animal, thing, feeling, place, space, whether real or imaginary.

It is detailing how it is, what its properties, qualities, attributes are, objectively or subjectively. Nouns, verbs and mostly qualifying adjectives are used.

Example: The first day of school arrived and the happy children made a long formation to make the entrance, sang the anthem and went into the room in order. Upon entering, the teacher kindly greeted them and asked each student to introduce themselves, with her full name and the things she likes to do.

– The dialogue

The purpose is to literally reproduce a conversation.

It is to represent an exchange of information between two or more people, using hyphen (-) to indicate the turn of each participant along with their name, question marks, exclamation marks for questions and emotions. Its object is to give intonation and a sense of spontaneous conversation.

Example: The worker arrived at the office and the boss a little upset

Boss – Do you think that these are hours to arrive?

Worker -Of course not, excuse me sir!

Boss -I must admonish him or deduct the day!

Worker -Sure sir, excuse me again!

Boss – What happened to him? Why was she so late?

Worker -An unforeseen event occurred on the street. A little boy who ran out of his house and tried to cross the street by himself. When I saw him, I ran to him, picked him up, and prevented a car from hitting him!

Boss -Where did that happen?

Worker -I already told you, in front of your house, sir!

– The exhibition

Its intention is to explain a topic objectively.

It is to present an investigation, a study on a subject, a phenomenon, a process, with the intention that the recipient knows, understands and reflects on its importance, its application to life, etc.

Example: In these moments in which technological advances worldwide change in an accelerated way, we must take into account the incorporation of technologies into the educational field. Tic’s are information and communication technologies, which have contributed great advances in learning and are a great resource to develop the abilities and skills of students in various areas.

– The argument

Defend a point of view or an idea, with reasons.

It is to persuade the receiver using complete information that validates his opinion, to demonstrate that it is important and to justify his vision regarding something trying to convince the other with evidence.

Example: The project for the construction of the ecological park is very important, both for community development and for the integration of young people in street situations. In the city of Valencia, they applied these strategies and managed to rescue almost 200 young people who were in danger of falling into drugs.


Bassols, M. and Torrent, A. (2012). Textual models theory and practice. Barcelona, ​​Octahedron Editions, SL
Text typology. Retrieved from: cvc.cervantes.es
Fuentes R., J. (2013). Prezi: Text prototypes and features. Retrieved from: prezi.com
Gomez, M. (2014). Text prototypes. Retrieved from: prototipos-textuales-ey.blogspot.com
Martinez Hernandez, M. (2006). Reading and writing workshop I, a constructivist approach”. Mexico, Pearson Education
Example of Textual Prototypes. Retrieved from: ejemplode.com
Reading and Writing Workshop I. Retrieved from: dgb.sep.gob.mx.

Deja una respuesta

Tu dirección de correo electrónico no será publicada. Los campos obligatorios están marcados con *