7 junio, 2024

Text analysis: characteristics, techniques and types

He text analysis It consists of making an evaluation of a certain content. To do this, each of the elements that make up the argument is taken into account in order to study it and thus come to understand the message that the author wanted to reach.

There are a variety of techniques to apply when performing the analysis of a text. These allow us to extract valuable information and structure it for a better understanding. These evaluations can be carried out in all types of texts, from historical, literary and even journalistic.

When carrying out an analysis, the meaning of the content is sought in order to give a concise explanation of the author’s objective. The characteristics, techniques and applications of this very useful tool when studying a publication will be explained below.


Text Analysis Features

The analysis of a text has several characteristics:

Highlight the author’s message

One of the main characteristics when analyzing a text is that it is possible to clearly show the intention of the author. All the techniques applied to carry out said review will allow a summary view of the objective of the content that has been read.

improve knowledge

Carrying out a study of a text will strengthen the knowledge that will derive from said reading. This is because this information leads to a deep analysis that allows clarifying all doubts and effectively seeing the message.

Present structured information

A text analysis is done in an orderly way and allows the ideas raised by the author to be evaluated in a structured way. Having the data schematized, it is possible to appreciate more simply the objective of the document in question.

Text Analysis Techniques

preliminary reading

First, a glance at the text must be taken to know what it is about and thus have previous knowledge of the content.

Comprehensive reading

Once a first reading is done, we can reread the text more deeply and carefully. This process can be done as many times as necessary until you grasp the theme and ideas that are being developed. The goal is to clearly understand the content.


An extremely important technique is underlining, it is recommended to use it from the second reading. This consists of highlighting the main information, its complements and other details that you consider relevant in the text. It can be done by placing lines, symbols, colors or annotations.

It has a great advantage to use this technique, since it allows better concentration when reading and thus improves the retention of information. Once done, the next readings will be easier and more effective. It is vital not to abuse this resource and focus it only on what is essential.


Schemas are very useful when performing a textual analysis. These serve to visualize the structure of the content studied. With them a graphic representation of the main and secondary approaches is made.

By means of this technique, the ideas are clearly ordered and by hierarchies, relying on the use of underlining. The schemes seek to synthesize the content. That is why they should be made with short sentences, but with valuable information.

When developing this resource, different signs can be used to classify each point by importance. They can also be differentiated by the font, and in this way it will be easier to visualize and understand everything.


The abstract can also be used for text analysis. This technique consists of making a synthesis of the subject, the ideas are highlighted and they are related to each other. This must be done in your own words, but respecting what the author said. You should not issue your own opinions.

The content needs to be concise, but with the same structure as the original. Therefore, it must contain the title, the description of the argument and the intention of the author. It must be objective, brief and not forget any main point of the content. This technique is complemented with a comprehensive reading and underlining.

Conceptual map

This system is based on the graphic expression of the main concepts of a text. It is usually identified with arrows that direct the information. The concept maps are related to the schemes, and in them the information is also placed by the degree of importance.

Types of text analysis

Argumentative text analysis

An argumentative text is made to support the hypothesis of an author. The objective is to convince the receiver of the vision of the person who elaborates the writing. When a content of this category is analyzed, the theme, the thesis and the sub-themes that complement it must be detected, in addition to the type of argument.

It is also important to highlight the opinion of the person who carried out the analysis, and mention whether or not he is against the thesis and its purpose.

Historical text analysis

The analysis of a historical text is based on the meticulous study of the facts and points presented by the author. The information collected can be associated with other works that can complement and give more depth to the event studied.

In addition, whoever analyzes must carry out a chronological evaluation of the text with the consequences that it could have had at that time or today.

Literary analysis

This type of analysis is carried out based on a literary work and its purpose is to evaluate its parts. This study will be adapted to the type of genre being evaluated, be they books, poems, novels… As in other texts, the aim is to highlight the main idea and the author’s message.

Analysis of expository texts

These types of texts are based on investigative processes in different areas of knowledge. They are created to generate interest in the recipient. When analyzing them, the ideas presented should be highlighted and explained in the most concise way.

After that, a summary of all the information is given; This may have a technical and/or graphic language depending on the subject matter.

Analysis of journalistic texts

The journalistic texts that we can find are varied, according to which we evaluate we must know the purpose with which it was carried out. In the analysis of these, the main content is extracted, the protagonists, when the event happened and the way in which everything happened. With all this data it is possible to give a clear vision of the situation presented.

Analysis of theatrical texts

To carry out a functional analysis of a theatrical text, all the aspects that make up said literary creation must be evaluated separately. Such is the case of the context, the structure, the content, the characters and the language used. After this, a correlation is made between each of the elements.

Having studied each factor and its connection, the objective that the author pursued with said work can be issued in a reliable and close manner.


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