12 julio, 2024

Pre-romanticism: what it is, origin, characteristics, authors, works

What is pre-romanticism?

He preromanticism It is a literary movement developed in Europe, most notably, at the end of the 18th century. As its name indicates, this current was the precursor of literary romanticism, a movement that opposed neoclassicism.

The appearance of pre-romanticism brought with it a new form of expression, together with a new way of thinking.

From its emergence, an idealistic thought was evidenced that caused a 180 ° turn to what already existed, thus beginning a more expressive, intimate and passionate literature.

Origin of pre-romanticism

Pre-romanticism has its origin in the 18th century, specifically in Europe. It was known and went down in history as a literary movement that occurred between Neoclassicism and Romanticism.

First Germany and England saw its birth, then it spread to Spain, Italy and France.

Characteristics of pre-romanticism

This literary movement presented aspects different from those of neoclassicism, among which the following can be mentioned:

– This movement affirmed feelings over reason, giving preponderance to emotions. The writers let themselves be carried away by what they felt no matter how exalted or sad it was.

– In general, neoclassical rules are rejected when writing. That meant more freedom to express yourself. However, there were some pre-romantics who continued to accept them.

– For the development of his works, pre-romanticism, and later romanticism, he preferred settings and spaces charged with mystery. Cemeteries, ruins, dark forests, storms, night scenes, the appearance of ghosts, etc., were especially worked by the pre-romantics.

– It opened the way to a more intimate and individualistic writing.

Authors of pre-romanticism and their works

Pre-romanticism, as a European movement, had expressions and authors in different countries of this continent. Among them stood out:

Jean-Jacques Rousseau (Swiss, 1712-1778)

He stood out for being a philosopher, writer, musician, botanist and naturalist. He was considered the first writer of pre-romanticism and the predecessor of romanticism.

One of his most notable works was The village fortune teller an opera that premiered on October 18, 1752, in the presence of King Louis XV. Another of his most relevant works was Discourse on the origin and foundations of the inequality of men. In this text the author referred to the types of inequality.

They complete the list of Rousseau’s novel Julia or the New Heloise, published in 1761. It tells the love story that arises between two people from different social classes. there is also Emilio or of the educationits content is mostly philosophical and deals with man and society.

Thomas Chatterton (Great Britain, 1752-1770)

Among his most notable works is memories of a sad dog, a text with a sarcastic tone. He created a heteronym, the medieval monk Rowley, under which he published various works. He committed suicide very young.

Louis-Sébastien Mercier (French, 1740-1814)

He was a student of Rousseau, and in addition to being a writer, he was also a critic and playwright. Among his works are paris table, foundational work of costumbrismo, the poem The geniusand Virginiaa drama written in 1767. He defended the idea of ​​a national and current theater and involved with everyday life and society.

Madame de Staël (French, 1766-1817)

She was the main female representative of pre-romanticism in France. Her real name was Anne Louise Germaine Necker. Her political ideas were advanced for the time, in addition to being a precursor of feminism in this country.

dolphin and corina They are his greatest works. The first was written in 1802, and the second in 1807. Both are novels, and their content was based on the social limitations to which women of her time were victims.

Manuel José Quintana (Spain, 1772-1857)

Most of his works cover political and moral themes. Pelayo, the Duke of Viseo and The Rules of Drama These are just some of his works as a writer. He is closer to neoclassicism.

José Gallows (Spain, 1741-1782)

He wrote his works under the nickname of Dalmiro, both prose and poetry. Leisures of my Youth, La Numantina and solaya top his repertoire of writings.

Vittorio Alfieri (Italian, 1749-1803)

He is the most prominent representative of pre-romanticism in Italy. Antony and Cleopatra, agamemnon, Virginia, don garcia, orestes and Mary Stuart They are his most relevant works, classical in form but with a purely romantic content: conflict between power and freedom, rebellion.

Representatives of other countries

Scandinavia, Germany and Russia also had representatives in this literary genre.

In the case of the former, Johannes Edwald, who was a poet and playwright, stood out; your text Balder’s Death in 1774 it was his closest work to pre-romanticism.

For Germany were Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Johan Gottfried Herder. The first is the most prominent and well-known in German literature; His main works were: Goetz of Berlinchingenpeg, Prometheus, Splendor and the novel The troubles of young Werther.

Other representatives of pre-romanticism were also: Ugo Foscolo, Edward Young, Thomas Gray, William Cowper, Horace Walpole, François-René de Chateaubriand, James Macpherson, Friedrich Schiller, Alberto Lista, José Marchena, Ippolito Pindemonte and Jacques-Henri Bernardin de Saint- Pierre.

References

Preromanticism. Retrieved from wikipedia.org.
Foldi, R. (S.f.). “Pre-Romantic” Literature or “Illustrated” Literature? Recovered from cervantesvirtual.com.
Preromanticism. Retrieved from pasionliterariajoven.blogspot.com.

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