7 junio, 2024

Philosophical knowledge: what it is, characteristics, types, examples

We explain what philosophical knowledge is, its characteristics, types that exist, and we give several examples.

What is philosophical knowledge?

He philosophical knowledge or philosophical knowledge is the understanding of the world and existence that is generated from observation, thought, reading, study and reflection. From it you can analyze different natural phenomena and the environment in which the human being develops.

This type of knowledge is possible thanks to the reflective capacity of humans, which produces questions and conclusions about reality; therefore, direct experience greatly influences the reflections that are generated.

Philosophical knowledge is different from scientific knowledge, which is obtained from the scientific method. An example of philosophical knowledge is the theory of the social contract; that governments and societies originate from agreements between individuals, giving up individual freedom for protection and security.

Generally, scientific knowledge can be verified from experiments. While philosophical knowledge is more relative and subjectivesometimes assuming theories that cannot be verified with experiments.

Characteristics of philosophical knowledge

– Involves an analysis process: can address any topic, but focuses on specific categories in order to detail a concept or theory.

– It is systematic: It has an order, a classification and different categories that function as support to explain and support arguments.

It’s related to the story: This type of knowledge is influenced by the historical context and the social aspects that surround those who produce it.

– Promotes a critical way of thinking: It is based on the rational analysis of the phenomena, without falling into absolute statements, since there is always room for doubt and correction.

– He plans to find the truth: seeks true knowledge through reflections and rational conclusions.

– is rational: aspires that emotions and feelings do not disturb the judgment of who is carrying out the reflection, focusing on a rational logic.

– Search for answers: is based on humanity’s need to understand the world and its environment.

Types of philosophical knowledge

epistemological knowledge: studies how knowledge is obtained and its own validity, going to the origin of ideas and analyzing the human being.
metaphysical knowledge: studies events that cannot be explained in any field of science, resorting to situations of a spiritual nature.
language philosophy: focuses on explaining the relationship between words, reality and mind, trying to define how the human mind affects the perception of reality.
epistemological knowledge: studies human knowledge in general, how it originates and what scope it has. Analyze each of the types of human knowledge.
philosophy of mind: deals with mental processes and how they influence the body and, especially, the brain.
political knowledge: informs about human relations and their community and explains about the systems and different forms of government.
Ethics: analyzes human behavior, focusing on the moral factors that affect the behavior of individuals.
Logic: studies how correct reasoning is, both in formal and informal processes, providing tools for scientific knowledge and also for daily life.
Phenomenology: studies the phenomena as individuals experience them, without judgments or preconceptions, attending to the experiences that are generated in human consciousness.

Differences between scientific knowledge and philosophical knowledge

He philosophical knowledge does not follow an exact method, unlike the scientist, since he is more open to intellectual questions. On the other hand, philosophical knowledge does not resort to experiments or checks to demonstrate the validity of their hypotheses or assertions.

In addition, the conclusions that are produced with philosophical knowledge they are abstract and those generated by science are concrete. While the philosophical search involves answering general questions about life and reality, scientific processes are based on accessing knowledge, answering specific questions.

Examples of Philosophical Knowledge

Reflections of Plato in his book The Republic: the Greek philosopher explained in this text human nature and how the political organization of societies works.
Of happiness, by Lucius Anneo Seneca: writings with Stoic ideas on how to achieve happiness.
Analects of Confucius: writings taken by the disciples of Confucius about his teachings.
Meditations of Marcus Aurelius: reflections of the roman emperor and philosopher based on stoicism.
Cogito ergo sum: Descartes’ approach on which rationalism is based.
Treatises of Aristotle: in his book Metaphysicsthe Greek philosopher Aristotle overturned a series of treatises to understand the human being, his relationship with the divinities and with mathematical knowledge.
Study on the future of humanity: based on the phenomena that are occurring in the present, philosophical knowledge can be used to develop a reflection on what will happen in the future with the human species.
The being and the time: considered one of the most important philosophical books, this work by Martin Heidegger reflects on the meaning of being and wonders why there is something instead of nothing.
The theory of knowledge of St. Thomas Aquinas: the scope of human understanding is achieved through the sensitive.
Nietzsche’s nihilism: doctrine of philosophy that defends that nothing makes sense.
The Blank Slate by John Locke: the mind learns through experience.
Immanuel Kant’s Transcendental Idealism: knowledge requires an object and a subject.
Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes: defense of the State and the social contract.

References

Epistemology. Taken from plato.stanford.edu
Difference Between Science and Philosophy. Taken from differencebetween.net

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