7 junio, 2024

Oral exposure: characteristics, elements, structure, types

The oral presentation It is a type of spoken presentation where one or more people make known, to a public of listeners, a certain topic. This is a common practice for students during their training, however, for some, speaking in front of an audience can be a source of stress and worry.

To avoid these problems, it must be kept in mind that an oral presentation requires the same quality of preparation as any other academic task. For this reason, a common feature of all oral presentations is the need to prepare carefully and in advance.

It is important to note that, although oral presentations are mainly used in colleges and universities, they are also an indispensable tool in the workplace.

For example: a person can make a presentation with the aim of selling a product or convincing an audience to act in a certain way; This is why we are taught from a very young age to hold exhibitions.


Oral exposure characteristics

– Has a clear purpose

An oral presentation can be carried out in front of members of a business or government organization, or in a classroom. In any case, it is necessary that its purpose is clearly defined.

The objective of an oral presentation can be to explain a process, defend a point of view, contrast opinions, recount historical events, among others.

– Adapts to the audience

An exhibition must be specifically prepared for the public to which it is directed, in order to achieve that the information reaches the audience efficiently.

The interlocutors must be clearly identified. It helps a lot to know what their background is and what level of knowledge they have about the material being presented. Also, it is important to know what they hope to get out of the presentation.

– Avoid unnecessary details

In quality presentations the phrase «less is more» is fulfilled. It’s a common mistake for presenters to try to say too much. As a result, the main message may be lost.

A clear and concise presentation is preferable, one that is provocative and leads to dialogue during the question and answer session.

– Use well-designed visual supports

Another of the characteristics of the oral presentation is related to the visual aids. Misspelled and poorly designed visual aids can damage a speaker’s credibility.

Even if the speech is excellent, the presenter will be perceived as unprofessional if the visual aids are poorly executed.

So, in addition to containing important information, this material must be clear, clean, organized, and large enough for the public to see and correctly interpret.

– Limited time

This is one of the most important characteristics of oral presentation. When a presentation is not finished on time, credibility can be lost.

You also run the risk of offending the public. Similarly, there are fewer opportunities to make a strong conclusion because attendees aren’t listening or have already left.

Support elements for oral presentations

The support elements in oral presentations are those physical resources that facilitate communication between the speaker and the listeners.

The choice of the appropriate element depends on a series of factors, such as the availability of the material, the physical characteristics of the place where the presentation will be made, the size of the group to which it will be addressed, the time available for its preparation and the knowledge that have the management of the resource.

Taking this into account, the most common support elements are the following:

– The blackboard

The blackboard or blackboard is a support medium that does not require technical elements (contrary to slides, which require a computer). On the blackboards you can write phrases or concepts on the subject that is exposed, graphs or diagrams are also drawn to facilitate the understanding of the subject.

– The slide

Slides are elements created with a computer program where text, images, graphs and figures can be placed. The slides are presented in series according to the development of the topic.

– The videos

These image and sound reproduction systems are widely used in oral presentations. With them it is possible to introduce, summarize or illustrate very effectively the content of the subject matter.

– The script

The script consists of a series of notes in which the fundamental points that will be developed in the oral presentation are detailed in an orderly manner. For these reasons, the script is of great help for the presenter to gain confidence.

However, it must be taken into account that the script is only a support and should not be read literally during the course of the exhibition.

Structure of an oral presentation

Oral presentations generally follow the following structure:

– Title

The title constitutes the first orientation on the subject that will be treated. In other words, the title must communicate what will be discussed in the exhibition and the objective pursued.

An example of a title for an oral presentation could be: Characteristics and life contexts of the student population in Latin America between the years 2018-2021.

– The introduction

The introduction reveals the topic to be discussed, its importance and scope. In the same way, in this part the objectives that are intended to be met in the presentation are expressed.

– The body of the oral presentation

It is about the development of the theme, which must be arranged in different points. However, the exhibitor must take care that said development is not tedious, for which it is recommended to resort to examples, analogies, stories, drawings, graphs or images.

– The closing of the exhibition

At the closing or end of the oral presentation, a summary of the most important points that were presented is made. With this, the exhibitor seeks to establish the exposed concepts in his audience.

Types of oral presentations

Oral presentations are generally classified into two groups: individual and collective. According to this classification, different types of exposure can be established.

-Individual expositions

A single exhibitor participates in these exhibitions. The most used exposure structures in this case are the following:

The talk: whose main characteristics are informality and the possibility for the public to interrupt to ask questions.

The conference: which is defined by its formality. In this case, the listeners ask the questions or intervene at the end of the presentation.

Speech: This is a forceful presentation that has the characteristic of being formal and usually does not use supporting elements.

-Group exhibitions

These oral presentations are made by several people, among whom the preparation of the exhibition is distributed. The exponents agree on the parts of the exhibition that each one will address, the duration and the order of the interventions.

Some types of collective presentations are:

Roundtable: In this type of exhibition the presenters propose different points of view on the subject raised.

the symposium: In this type of exhibition the participants are experts in the different aspects of the topic that will be presented. That is, it is a group of people who handle a topic specific to their specialty or profession.

Oral exposure techniques

Below are some techniques or steps that show how to prepare a presentation, as well as how to develop and finish it correctly.

– Techniques to prepare the oral presentation

It begins by defining the topic and the objectives to be achieved.
The presenter must research and read about the topic. This research will facilitate the selection of the different aspects of the subject that will be exposed.
It is recommended that the exhibitor know in advance the characteristics of the audience. For example, the age and level of knowledge they have on the subject.
In advance, the exhibitor must specify the support materials that will be used; for example if a blackboard, slides or audiovisual elements will be used.
It is very helpful to make a scheme where the way in which the body of the exhibition will be developed is established.
Finally, you must practice and study the presentation to master it and present it fluently.

– Techniques to initiate and develop oral exposition

All oral presentation begins with the presentation of the speaker, his name, affiliation or place where he studies.
Then, the title of the exhibition is presented and a starting point is established, which must be related to the theme. For example: if the theme of the exhibition is child malnutrition, it could begin by saying «do you know the number of malnourished children in the world?»
Subsequently, the presentation is developed as planned.

– Techniques to end the oral presentation

To end the presentation, a summary of the most important points that were discussed is made.
After the summary, it is recommended to express an idea that encompasses the ultimate goal of the presentation. For example: «we must promote the implementation of prevention measures that allow the rates of child malnutrition to be reduced in the world.»

Examples of oral presentations

Individual oral presentation on climate change

Start of presentation

The presenter shows the first slide that contains the title of the presentation, which is “Climate change”. He then begins the presentation by asking a question “do you know what climate change is?”

Subsequently, the speaker, with the help of a second slide, develops the concept of climate change and the problem.

Then, using a third slide, the presenter shows the objectives pursued by the exhibition and expresses them as follows: «due to the problems exposed, this presentation aims to show the causes of climate change, its effects and the measures taken to minimize its impact.

The body of the exhibition

On a fourth slide, the presenter can present the points that will be covered throughout the presentation.

This slide begins in this way: “to meet the proposed objectives, we will develop the causes of climate change, its effects on the ozone layer and biodiversity. We will end this section by explaining what we are doing to avoid this problem.”

Finally, the presenter develops the presentation. For this he uses images, photos and diagrams that will facilitate the understanding of the subject.

Closing of the exhibition

To close the presentation, the presenter presents the most important ideas that were presented on a slide. He lists them as follows:

Climate change is a serious problem that affects humanity and all living beings on the planet.
Excessive human activity is…

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