8 junio, 2024

Mountain Coast Region: what it is, location, flora, fauna, climate

What is the Mountain Coast Region?

The Mountain Coast Region It is the territory located to the northwest of Venezuela. It limits to the north with the Caribbean Sea, to the east with Colombia, to the south with the Marabina Depression and to the east with the Yaracuy Depression.

The states of Vargas, Miranda, Táchira, Mérida, Carabobo, Sucre, Nueva Esparta, Zulia, Falcón, Lara, Aragua and Anzoátegui constitute said region.

Venezuela is located in the northern part of South America, on the shores of the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, between Colombia and Guyana. To the south it limits with Brazil and Colombia. Its proximity to the equator meridian provides it with a warm, humid climate and jungles rich in biodiversity.

The country is geographically divided into three main regions: the Andes mountain range (located in the north, very close to the Venezuelan coast), the Orinoco basin (located to the south) and the Guyanas Plateau (located to the south). and southeast of the Orinoco basin).

The coastal region also includes 300 islands, islets and keys that occupy 4,000 km in the Caribbean Sea.

Characteristics of the Mountain Coast Region


The Venezuelan Andes is the most prominent orographic accident in the country, covering an area of ​​36,120 km².

Upon reaching Venezuela, the range splits into two mountain ranges: the Sierra de Perijá and the Cordillera de Mérida, both of which run from the Táchira Depression in the southwest to the northeast in the Barquisimeto-Acarigua Depression.

The highest point in Venezuela is the Bolívar peak, with 4,980 meters above sea level.

Sierra Perija

It is the western chain, it is located to the west of Zulia and borders with Colombia. Its greatest height is 3,750 meters above sea level. This region is sparsely populated and lives on livestock and the dairy industry.

Merida Mountain Range

It is located to the east of the Zulia Depression. In this mountain range, the relief reaches its highest elevations, with the Bolívar peak (4,980 m) being the highest, and continuing with the Humboldt (4,924 m) and Bonpland (4,882 m) peaks.

The lands are optimal for agriculture, but the crops vary according to the altitude of the mountains.


The meeting of the Caribbean Sea (which is part of the Atlantic Ocean) with the Coastal Range makes it easy to classify the islands into two classes.

mainland islands

They are called this way because of their continuity with the Venezuelan coast and which include the island of Margarita (the largest and most important of all), Los Testigos, Cubagua and Coche.

Its surface is also made up of igneous and metamorphic rocks like the elevations of the mountain range.

offshore islands

They are located at more than 200 nautical miles and arose from coral reefs. The two most important are the archipelago of Los Monjes and Isla Aves. The others are Los Roques, La Orchila, La Blanquilla and Los Hermanos.

Flora, fauna and climate

The region’s altitudes allow it to have different thermal floors that offer snow, desert, lakes and beaches, whose scenery is also set with the region’s endemic flora and fauna.

Most of the land in the Andes mountain range is arable, and coffee planting stands out.

In the Bolívar, Humboldt and Bonpland mountain peaks, temperatures are equal to or even less than 0°, so the climate is freezing and vegetation is sparse.

On the paramero floor, which enjoys temperatures between 8° and 0°, coffee, wheat, potatoes and other tubers are grown. Rainfall is moderate and humidity is low.

Most of the Northern Cordillera and the lower sections of the Andes (such as the coastal zone) have a tropical savannah climate, with little rainfall and temperatures between 26° to 30°.

The islands have xerophilous thorn vegetation with temperatures above 26°, very typical of a very arid tropical climate.

In all the thermal floors, the flora and fauna are different and numerous. The absence of seasons allows the continuity of the same climate for most of the year, except for some dry and rainy seasons (typical of countries on the equator line). Consequently, the biodiversity of the Costa Montaña area is very high.


The Andean-coastal mountainous arc conducts the waters that arise from the region to one of the basins (of the Orinoco River or that of Lake Maracaibo) or to one of the slopes (of the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea).

Due to topographic irregularities in the terrain, which facilitate the presence of valleys and mountains, the course of the rivers is not regular, forming waterfalls that are used for hydroelectric production. However, the flow of the rivers is weak and short.


Most of the population is concentrated in this region, so it is not surprising that the most important port cities are found along the Venezuelan coast, such as La Guaira, Puerto Cabello, Cumaná and Barcelona.

The most important port is La Guaira, although it does not have a natural port. It reached this position thanks to its location close to the capital, Caracas, and to the rich agricultural areas.


Codazzi, A. (1841). Mountains. Geography of venezuela. Paris: H. Fournier.
Diamón Oropeza, J., & Rodríguez Henríquez, Y. (2014). Geography of venezuela. Caracas: Bicentennial Collection.

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