8 junio, 2024

Methodological design: structure, how to do it, example

He Methodological design It is in charge of defining the organization of the processes to be developed in an investigation, to carry it out satisfactorily, defining what type of tests to carry out and how the data will be taken and examined.

The amount and type of processes that are needed in a methodological design depend exclusively on the type of research, thesis or project that is being addressed, as well as its scope, the approach to the problem, the specific objectives, and, in if any, of the hypothesis or hypotheses formulated.

Therefore, it can be said that the methodological design responds to the question of how the research is going to be developed, trying to find the solution to a problem, and verify the veracity of the hypotheses that were outlined in it, if it is that have been raised previously.

The fidelity and veracity of the final results obtained by a study or investigation depend, to a large extent, on the methodological design that was chosen to carry it out. That is why they must be carefully made.

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Structure of the methodological design

The structure of a methodological design is not the same for all investigations, projects or theses. The processes that will be used depend, first of all, on the topic that the study deals with, and from there, on what is intended to be verified and analysed.

The following is a list of the processes that can be found in the structure of a methodological design:

Research type and focus

The choice of the type of research, and the approach that is going to be given to it, is one of the fundamental parts of the structure of a methodological design, and it is where the procedures that will be developed in the process begin to be shaped. the investigation.

It is the first step that a researcher must take when designing how the study is going to be carried out, and depending on the characteristics of the problem to be studied, such as the approach to the problem or the hypotheses raised, among others, it will take decisions about what type and approach of research are needed to address it.

The main types of research are the following:

Experimental
descriptive
Documentary film
explanatory
correlational
exploratory

Regarding the focus of the investigation, there are two types:

The qualitative approach: data referring to the quality of the event, which cannot be quantified.
Quantitative approach: numerical values ​​that can be quantified.

Research or information sources

Depending on the type and approach that has been taken to carry out the research, thesis or project, the need to use research or information sources may arise.

These sources are divided into two groups:

The primary sources: are those information or data obtained directly by the researcher who is carrying out the study, and can be obtained using different techniques such as the survey, the interview or the observation, among others.
secondary sources: are information that are already prepared by different researchers, from which useful data is taken for the research that is being carried out. This information can be found in books, documents or web pages, among others.

Data collection and analysis techniques

Information collection and analysis techniques refer to the way or method that will be used to obtain the data needed to carry out the study, and how they will be analyzed.

The main data collection techniques are the following:

experiments
Survey
Interview
Observation
group sessions
documents

Regarding the analysis of the information, currently the data collected is entered into a computer, and through the use of a specialized program the information collected is analyzed.

Population and samples

In the event that the research is carried out on some type of population in particular, it is necessary to resort to identifying it, thus delimiting the scope that the study will have. That is, on which group of people, animals or objects, among others, the study will be carried out.

In addition, if the population is of such a large size that it makes it impossible to collect information, samples are selected from it, which must represent the population, in order to obtain the necessary data for the investigation.

For the selection of the samples, two different types of techniques can be applied: the probabilistic one, through which the selection of the samples is done at random. Or the non-probabilistic, where the researcher selects the samples for convenience.

Procedure

The stage of the procedure is always in a methodological design, regardless of the type and focus of the investigation.

The procedure sets out the research phases, where each of these phases corresponds to the development of each of the specific objectives stipulated in the research, thesis or project.

In addition, each of the phases must be well explained, specifying the steps to follow, instruments and methodology used, as well as the presentation of the results obtained, among other data.

How to make a methodological design?

The preparation of a methodological design depends on several factors, which influence its structure. For this reason, there is no format that can be applied to all investigations, rather each investigation may have a unique methodological design.

However, in all methodological designs it is necessary to know:

The type of data that will be needed. There are two options: 1-Primary data (obtained by the same researcher) or secondary (obtained by another researcher). 2-Quantitative data (variables that can be measured, such as the volume of polluting gases, height, weight, etc.) or qualitative (subjective experiences, interpretations and understanding concepts).
How the data will be collected (through interviews, experiments, surveys, bibliographic sources…).
How the data will be analysed. There are two ways: quantitative data analysis (statistical methods and programs such as Excel or SPSS are used) and qualitative data analysis (the subjectivity of the researcher is used, for example describing the experiences that the participants have).
Finally, the design is written, which includes the previous data and in general how the research is planned to be done.

Step-by-step example of a methodological design

As an example, a step-by-step development of a methodological design for a project on environmental contamination is presented.

First step

As a first step, the type and approach that is going to be given to the project must be selected.

In this case, a type of informative documentary research with a quantitative approach is chosen.

Second step

Since the type of research to be carried out is informative documentary, it is necessary to search for sources of information, in this case of the secondary type.

The secondary sources of information that are used are specialized magazines, books and Internet pages that provide information about environmental contamination.

Third step

The third step consists in selecting the techniques used to collect and analyze the necessary data.

In this case, the review of documents will be used as a collection technique, and for its analysis, tables will be made where the levels of environmental contamination are evidenced.

Fourth step

Finally, the procedure is carried out, where the specific questions of the project are answered.

For this example, the data obtained about environmental pollution will be presented in detail.

Example of methodological design of a research

The following example expresses the methodological design of a quantitative investigation on the effects of alcoholism in indigenous population in Latin Americawhere the first specific objective set is the following:

Compare statistics related to alcoholism among Latin American countries, with the presence of indigenous population.

Methodological design of the research «EEffects of alcoholism in the indigenous population in Latin America”

The review of statistical data related to alcohol consumption in different Latin American countries is proposed, classified according to demographic conditions, such as age, gender, socioeconomic status, among others. (State the type of data that will be needed).

Additionally, the review of statistical data exclusively oriented to alcohol consumption in indigenous populations and possible effects derived from such consumption is proposed.

These data will be taken from anonymous surveys carried out in samples of the most populated cities in Latin America. (It says how the data will be collected).

Once this information has been collected, the results obtained between Latin American countries can be compared using a statistical program. In this way, new data will be generated that will allow us to see which are the countries with the highest rate of alcohol consumption in the Latin American indigenous population, relevant to determine how this affects the social and political reality of the countries within which they are immersed. . (It tells how the data is analyzed).

References

Bernal, CA (2010). Investigation methodology. Retrieved from abacoenred.com
Hernández Sampieri, R., Fernández Collado, C., & Baptista Lucio, M. d. (2014). Investigation methodology. Retrieved from uca.ac.cr
Kumar, R. (2011). RESEARCH METHODOLOGY. Retrieved from sociology.kpi.ua
Niño Rojas, VM (2011). Investigation methodology. Retrieved from roa.ult.edu.cu
Sabino, C. (2008). The research process. Retrieved from metodoinvestigacion.files.wordpress.com

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