12 julio, 2024

List of Roman goddesses

The roman goddesses They are part of the pantheon of this ancient culture, first related to Etruscan customs and rituals, and then influenced by Greek culture, which was forcefully incorporated into the culture of the people of Lazio. Their religion was polytheistic, since they believed in many gods, and each one, as well as each one of the goddesses, governed an aspect of life.

The Romans incorporated many of the gods of the cultures and peoples they subjugated, but the most outstanding were the Greeks, who were deeply admired for their many knowledge. It is thus that almost all the gods of the Roman pantheon have their equivalent in the Greek.

Mythology, or religion, is a way of explaining the origin of the world and what surrounds us. All cultures have it, and it is their way of understanding where they came from as a people.

The most important Roman goddesses

bellona

She was the Roman goddess of war, probably of Etruscan origin, daughter of Jupiter and Juno. Originally there was not a very precise description of her, although later this deity was related to the Greek goddess Enio, the «Destroyer of cities».

In some of the representations of Bellona, ​​she was found as the wife or sister of Mars, the god of war. Her name is related to the word «belligerent» (one who is at war), and in art she is depicted with a helmet, breastplate, spear, torch, and sword.

Ceres

She was the goddess of agriculture, harvests and fertility. From her name comes the word cereal. It was part of the main pantheon of the Romans, that is, it was a Dii Consente. Daughter of Saturn and Ops, Ceres was the mother of Proserpina, and was the patroness of Sicily.

Her Greek equivalent was Demeter. It is said that when the Etruscans attacked Rome, the city was experiencing a terrible famine. Then they consulted Sibylline Books, some Roman prophetic writings, which advised to adopt the cult of Demeter. Thus, in 496 BC, Demeter entered the Roman pantheon transformed into Ceres. His cult is associated with the commoner classes and grain merchants.

Cybele

It was also known to the Romans as Magna Mater, What does the Great Mother mean? She was an ancient goddess worshiped in Anatolia since Neolithic times, associated with caves, mountains, nature, walls and fortresses.

Its Greek equivalent was Rhea, and it was readapted in this culture to integrate other divinities. In Roman religion, the Senate led to Rome the black stone that symbolized the goddess Cibeles, andn 204 BC

Over time, the cult of Cybele in Rome grew and its festivals became an orgiastic event that lasted until the late Roman Empire under the name of Megalesias. She was depicted as a woman wearing a crown of towers, accompanied by lions, or riding on a chariot drawn by the same wild beasts.

Diana

It was an original Italic deity of the area, worshiped by Latin tribes. She was the virgin goddess of the hunt, the moon, and nature, of which she was the protector. She was usually depicted with a bow and arrows, possessing a very athletic body and great beauty.

In the mid-5th century BC, Diana was linked to the Greek tale of Artemis, since then many versions have been added to her story, and she was considered the sister of Phoebus or Apollo.

dawn

She was the Roman goddess who personified the dawn. She was represented as a beautiful woman who flew across the sky to announce the arrival of the Sun, who is her brother (as is the Moon). She had several children, four of whom are the north, south, east, and west winds. According to the myth, one of her children was killed, and that is why the goddess cries when she travels. Her tears are the morning dew.

Fides

She was the goddess of fidelity and trust for the Romans. She represented the word that a person pledged when making a promise.

She was usually shown as an older woman, graying and older than Jupiter. That meant that respect for what someone promises is the basis of the order of a society. To make offerings to him, the right hand should be wrapped in a white cloth.

Flora

She is the goddess of flowers, spring and gardens. It is said that she had power over all flowers, both ornamental and cultivated.

His festival was the Floralia, which was celebrated in April or early May, representing the renewal of the cycles of life. It was very important, and was celebrated with dances and drinks.

Fortune

It is believed that this deity was added to the pantheon of Roman gods by King Servius Tullius. She identified with abundance and the direction of life. She was known as the wife of Fors, the god of chance, and she was depicted with a cornucopia and rudder, and often a Ferris wheel.

June

She had the role of the queen of the gods. She was the Roman equivalent of the Greek goddess Hera. Juno was the protector of women and marriage, especially wives. She was one of the Dii Consentes and part of the Capitoline Triad.

She was the wife of Jupiter, at the same time as her sister; both gods were sons of Saturn and Ops. Juno had three children: Marte, Vulcano and Bellona.

Justice

His original name was justitia. She was the personification of justice and the moral fortitude of the judicial systems in Rome. She is represented carrying a sword, the scales of truth and justice and blindfolded, alluding to the impartiality of the goddess to impart justice to all human beings.

Juventus

Juventus or Juventas was the goddess of youth, she especially protected those adolescents who had just reached the age necessary to wear the manly toga, that is, the moment in which they passed from children to men (16-17 years). Juventus was revered in Rome since before the introduction of the Capitoline triad.

Under his name, many institutions were created to group young people for different purposes, especially the military. Normally the boys left tributes to Juventus. At some point he became assimilated with Hebe, the Greek equivalent of him, who was the daughter of Zeus and Hera.

Moon

She was for a time the goddess of the Moon. However, when the myth of Phoebos (Apollo) arose and Diana became related to it, the cult of the moon was absorbed by the figure of Diana. Thereafter, little by little this secondary deity disappeared. She was associated with the Greek equivalent of her, Selene.

Minerva

Minerva was the virgin goddess of wisdom and intelligence, especially consecrated to school. She was also the goddess of civilization, war, the arts, victory, industry, medicine, commerce, inventions, crafts, and peace.

His myth was equivalent to that of Athena for the Greeks. She was born from the head of Jupiter. She was part of the Capitoline triad, along with whoever was her father and his wife, Juno. Despite that, she has no involvement in many traditionally Latino myths.

you need

The goddess of fate. need or you need, he personified the absolute and inevitable obligation of the will of fate. In the Greek pantheon she was known as Ananké, who represented a force that even the gods had to obey.

people

She is the personification of peace, daughter of Justice and Jupiter, and sister of Discipline and Concord. She is depicted as a beautiful young woman, crowned with an olive branch. The cult of her began approximately in the 1st century BC of her the Greek equivalent of her was Irene.

proserpina

She was the goddess of the underworld and also, at the beginning, she was related to agriculture, especially with the grain germination phase.

The cult of Proserpina began approximately in 249 BC, in the city of Taranto, where a temple was erected for her and a stone was discovered that already had the name of this goddess inscribed on it. She is said to have assimilated the features of the Greek goddess Persephone. She was the daughter of Ceres and Jupiter.

Her myth tells that when she was kidnapped by Pluto, her mother began to search for her all over the earth without finding her. Then, Pluto accepted that Proserpina lived 6 months with her mother and six months with him in the underworld. Every time Proserpina visited Ceres, the earth dressed in flowers in spring, and when Proserpina returned to the underworld, everything withered. That is why she is associated with spring myths.

tellus

She was also known by the name of Terra Mater, which means “maternal land”. She was the goddess of the Earth. The Greek equivalent of her was Gaea, the mother of the Titans.

The Romans invoked it during earthquakes, hence these movements are called «telluric». It was identified as the primordial element from which the rest of the races arose, that is, the gods.

Venus

This was an ancient Latin goddess venerated since ancient times by the inhabitants of the area. Venus was originally linked to the protection of orchards. Prior to the founding of Rome, the goddess had a cult site near Ardea.

From the 2nd century BC, its characteristics were assimilated with those of the Greek goddess Aphrodite. Thereafter, she also happened to be the goddess of love, beauty, and sexuality, and she was one of the Dii Consentes.

Vesta

She was the goddess of the hearth fire, which was understood as the center of the house by the Romans. She belonged to the Dii Consentes group, since she was one of the leading figures in the Roman pantheon. Her cult was one of the most important in Roman religion and was attended by the Great Pontiff and by the vestals, virgin priestesses who dedicated their lives to the service of this goddess and to keep the fire burning.

Vestals had to belong to important families and were ordained at 10 years of age. His job was to keep Vesta’s fire burning. That flame represented the same goddess and if it went out it would be a misfortune for all the people of Rome.

His cult was introduced into the city by its own founder, Romulus. The sacred animal of the goddess was the donkey, and in the Vestalias, festivals in honor of the goddess, these animals wore crowns of flowers and did not work. Vesta was one of the daughters of Saturn and Ops. She was also considered as the goddess of fidelity and the heart.

Victory

It was the divine representation of victory. She is considered the equivalent of the Greek goddess Nike. Victoria was always shown as a winged female figure who placed a laurel wreath on the temples of the victors.

The cult of this goddess was very important to the Romans, who erected numerous temples in her honor, as well as giving her an important place in representations made both on coins and in art in general. She is the daughter of Estigia and sister of Invidia, Potestas and Vis.

Rome

Roma is the city goddess of the state of Rome. she associated with the art of ancient Rome. According to some myths, she is the daughter of Aesculapius, the god of medicine and healing. Other myths say that Rome was a captive Trojan who, when passing through Italy, and tired of her trip, she urged the other Trojans to burn their ships, being in the vicinity of the Tiber river.

Those who colonized the area (among which was Romulus), received very well by the natives, decided to pay homage to Rome by giving the city its…

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