12 julio, 2024

Instruments used by sedentary groups

What are the instruments used by sedentary groups?

The instruments used by sedentary groups They are the set of utensils that human beings invented and manufactured once they settled in fixed places, extracting from their environment everything they needed for their survival and way of life.

This process began during the Prehistoric period known as the Mesolithic, approximately 10,000 years ago.

This is a transition stage between the Paleolithic and the Neolithic, in which some peoples of the Middle East developed agriculture. This transcendental fact in the history of humanity gave rise to the first towns, some of which would later become cities.

Agriculture, with the consequent sedentarization, brought with it improvements in the instruments used since the time of nomadism, as well as the creation of new tools, adapted to the new lifestyle.

Materials such as stone, bone and deer antlers, frequent in the tools of the early stages of Prehistory, continued to be used, and later the use of metals was discovered: copper, bronze and iron.

polished axes

Previously, the stone was carved, but with the development of polishing, a new advance in the quality of tools came. Polished axes from 49,000 years ago made of basalt, a volcanic rock, have been found, but the use of other types of rocks was normal, according to the geology of the settlement site.

The stone was polished by using wet sand or with the help of another stone. The wooden handle, to increase the effectiveness of the tool, was added to the ax using deer gut strings and vegetable glues.

The polished stone ax was used as a hoe, to plow the land, and also for felling trees and harvesting processes.

Hoe

The first hoes, used to remove farmland, were made of a more or less flat stone, to which a wooden handle was added to make it easier to handle.

Today, hoes are still used in the fields and gardens without the Neolithic design having changed much, except that they are now made of metal.

Sickle

The sickle is used to hand-harvest cereals and other grasses. Currently, it consists of a semicircular blade, made of an alloy of copper and iron, with a short wooden handle.

Before the sickle was invented, farmers harvested their crops using flint knives.

The primitive sickle consisted of a wooden or bone structure, to which flint teeth or spikes were added. Later, at the end of the Neolithic period, the age of metals fully entered and sickles and other implements began to be made of metal.

The scythe is similar to the sickle, but its invention is later, although its purpose is also the harvesting of cereals and the pruning of herbs. The blade of the scythe is less curved, but the handle is much longer and can be wielded with both hands, while the sickle requires only one hand, leaving the other free to gather the crop.

hand mill

This instrument consisted of two stones: a larger one, with a concavity in the center, which served to put the grain to be ground. The second stone, smaller in size and rounded in shape, was used to rub and crush the grain against the other stone.

In this way, primitive people extracted the grain from the shell to make flour, with which they later made bread, one of the main foods of humanity.

ceramic utensils

The development of ceramic technology helped the inhabitants of the first towns to store the most precious liquids, such as water, milk and oil. Previously, artisans made baskets to store food, but obviously these were not used to store liquids.

The first ceramics were made using a very simple process: a portion of wet clay and mud was shaped to taste and left to dry in the sun. With this, not only plates, bowls and containers necessary for daily life were made, but also bricks to make houses.

The procedure was greatly improved when it was discovered that ceramics were stronger when fired at high temperatures.

Ceramic utensils facilitated the storage of grains for long periods of time. This gave the primitive settlers the security of having food in times of scarcity, and also encouraged trade, since in this way surpluses could be exchanged for other products that were lacking in the town.

rafts

They date from about 8,000 years ago and were used to navigate along coasts and rivers, transporting people and goods. They were made of reeds, rushes or strongly linked wooden trunks.

looms

The primitive looms were invented during the Neolithic, when the first settlements already existed, about 7,000 years ago.

The ancient artisans used looms to braid the fibers of vegetable and animal origin that were available to them, depending on their environment: sheep, vicuña or goat wool, or yarns derived from papyrus, palm, linen and cotton. .

In this way they made fabrics for making clothes and blankets, with which they protected themselves from the weather.

The fabrics made in this way were sewn with needles carved from bone. The oldest needle for which there is evidence dates from 41,000 years ago, and was found in the Potok cave, east of the Karavanke mountains, in Slovenia.

Hooks

The first hooks for fishing date from about 10,000 years ago, and it is believed that they were used exclusively by women. Previously, the assegaya was used as a harpoon.

The settlers settled near bodies of water made bone hooks, mollusk shells, wild boar teeth and deer antlers. In its beginnings, it was nothing more than a small stake sharpened at one end, with a string attached to the other.

The idea was that, when swallowing it, it would get stuck in the fish, and be able to pull it out of the water with a pull on the rope.

Over time, the hook acquired a curved shape, and barbs were added to it. Later, with the discovery of metals, hooks began to be made of copper and iron.

slings

The sedentarization brought with it the need to defend the resources of other rival populations. The assegaya, agricultural implements, bow and arrow, all could be used for warfare and hunting purposes, but the creativity of primitive peoples gave rise to other types of weapons.

The sling consists of two ropes tied to a kind of sheet with a concavity in the center, in which a projectile is placed, usually a stone or a sphere of baked clay, made for this purpose.

After placing the projectile, the free ends of the strings are taken in the hand, rotating the sling a few times. In this way, energy is provided to the projectile, which is transformed into movement, once it is released.

It is easier and cheaper to make a sling than a bow and arrow system, so its use continues to this day. Currently, the sling is used for entertainment, but many primitive peoples continue to use it as a defensive weapon, as well as to shoot down prey.

References

CurioSphere. History of the hook. Recovered from: curiosfera-historia.com.
Damiano, J. Tools Of The Neolithic Era: Inventing A New Age. Retrieved from: magellantv.com.
Junta de Andalucía. Neolithic instruments. Retrieved from: agrega.juntadeandalucia.es.
Upreshi, Nubisha. Top 10 Tools of Neolithic Period. Retrieved from: historyten.com.
Waugh, Rick. List of Neolithic Stone Tools. Retrieved from: science.com.

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