9 julio, 2024

Informative texts: concept, characteristics, types, structure, examples

We explain what informative texts are, their characteristics, types, structure and we give several examples.

What are informative texts?

The informative texts They are those that make scientific and humanistic information available to the general public, which is often complex, with clear language suitable for any reader.

The texts that explain new discoveries and advances in the different scientific and humanistic disciplines, as well as the most difficult and obscure aspects of these disciplines in such a way that anyone can understand them, are informative texts.

Informative texts are considered to be those found in press releases, magazines, textbooks for primary and secondary education, or dissemination works in fields such as astronomy, history, physics, or ecology.

Characteristics of informative texts

Use of simple language

Informative texts use clear and simple language to deal with sometimes extremely complex topics, such as the properties of elementary particles, human physiology, or about mathematical, chemistry or physics problems.

Explaining complex topics with simple words is not always easy, which is why writing popular texts is considered a specialty of journalism, and a true talent when exercised by scientists like Stephen Hawking or Carl Sagan.

It is ideal for a scientist to write these texts in such a way that the common people understand complex concepts related to human knowledge and knowledge. In any case, the journalist who writes informative texts must have some preparation in the discipline on which she is writing, in order to be able to transmit the knowledge.

Uses of specialized terminology

Informative texts try to avoid as far as possible the use of technical words and specialized «jargon», such as certain philosophical vocabulary, or that used in disciplines such as physics. He also tries to avoid mathematical explanations and formulas.

As in many occasions it is not possible to avoid the use of scientific terms, in those cases it is necessary to clarify their meaning as much as possible.

The informative text as translation

The informative text “translates” advances (papers), conference papers or conferences, theses or academic monographs, in press releases, informative articles, school texts or encyclopedias.

This means that in addition to changing highly specialized terminology, the popularizer must transform the structure of the text, to make it less heavy and more accessible.

use of examples

Informative texts rely heavily on the use of similes, comparisons to facilitate the understanding of complex issues or processes. There are classic examples: explaining the force of gravity with the apple and Newton, or using a train and two people to try to explain the theory of relativity.

Use of images and graphics

Informative texts are often supported by photographs, images, graphs, and maps to clarify different topics and situations.

(Many times the images help to understand the concepts explained in a text)

Simplify without distorting

No matter how many resources are used to make an idea understandable, informative texts try not to distort or betray what they are trying to explain. This is not always possible, as often happens when trying to explain the theory of relativity, or some aspects of quantum physics.

Presence of textual citations

Verbatim citations (texts in quotation marks ” ”) from researchers or authorities on any topic dealt with are a common resource in informative texts.

use of humor

Informative texts try to explain difficult topics, but also to get a wider audience interested in those topics. A tool that is usually resorted to, when possible and it is not disrespectful, is precisely humor, which can make access to and understanding of certain topics enjoyable, or less dry.

objectivity claim

Informative texts try to be objective, expose a topic or event without expressing an opinion. But this is not totally possible, even when it comes to scientific topics, because there is always a bias with the popularizer’s opinion on the subject matter, which increases notably when it comes to humanistic topics (philosophy, psychology, history, sociology, etc. ).

However, although absolute objectivity is not possible, informative texts try to stick to the facts and rely on the least biased and most recognized interpretations.

Types of informative texts

According to their content, informative texts can be scientific, technological, social and humanistic.

Scientific texts

They are those texts that disseminate knowledge about biology, physics, chemistry, medicine, geology, astronomy, mathematics, etc.; that is to say, on empirical or natural and exact sciences.

technological texts

They are those texts that describe the different forms and advances of technical knowledge. From the explanation of how a combustion engine works, to the latest advances in computer technology or mobile phones, we live surrounded by informative texts on technology.

social texts

They are informative texts on social science topics: sociology, psychology, anthropology, history, social communication, geography (demographic and social aspects), etc.

humanistic texts

The popularization texts of a humanistic nature are those that deal with aesthetics and the different artistic forms: literature, plastic arts, photography, music, dance, cinema and other expressions of humanity.

Structure of informative texts

Like other texts, informative texts are generally divided into three parts: introduction, development, and conclusion.

Introduction

As its name indicates, it is the part of the text where the subject to be discussed is introduced, main aspects are advanced, the reader’s attention is sought and some doubts or questions are raised.

Development

The main points of the topic discussed are presented: background, facts and consequences, main parties involved or responsible (researchers, discoverers, etc.). It is the part of the text where the debate or discussion is presented (if there are disagreements or doubts).

Conclusion

The exposed topic is summarized with its implications, returning to the main ideas. It is also possible to close with a quote from some authority or researcher.

Examples of informative texts

Let’s see some examples of informative examples:

Archaeology: «They reveal details of a city of more than 3,000 years discovered in Egypt»

Physics: «A tiny particle could alter the laws of physics»

Literature: «Introduction to gaucho literature»

The steps of the scientific method

clean energy

Deja una respuesta

Tu dirección de correo electrónico no será publicada. Los campos obligatorios están marcados con *