14 julio, 2024

History of Nuevo Leon

The history of Nuevo Leon, according to the stones engraved with cave paintings, it dates back to approximately 11,000 years ago. In Nuevo León there were nomadic and semi-nomadic civilizations. These indigenous tribes were called Chichimecas. Chroniclers used this name when talking about communities that moved from one place to another.

The communities in Nuevo León were made up of eight or ten indigenous people, who respected the space taken by others. They avoided invading the territory of other communities.

Some of the ethnic groups that developed in Nuevo León were the Catuajanes, the Azalapas, the Gualiches and the Coahuilecos, among others. These peoples lived quietly until the arrival of the Europeans.

In 1535 Álvaro Núñez was the first European to set foot on the lands of Nuevo León. Later, missionaries would arrive seeking to evangelize the natives in order to gain control of the territory.

After the first encounter with the natives, the Spanish begin to create the settlements. The first Spanish settlement in this territory was created in the mid-16th century and was called Villa de Santa Lucia.

prehispanic period

Nuevo León was inhabited in the north by the Catujanes and Alazapas. The Huachichiles and Gualaguises lived in the south, while the Coahuilecos developed in the west. In the center of Nuevo León lived the Gualiches and the Ayancuaras.

Nomadic peoples had children taught by their mothers to collect roots and plants. Once they grew up they could dedicate themselves to hunting, an activity in which the men of those communities specialized.

The different indigenous communities that made life in Nuevo León were detached from the family. For this reason, when they had to move from one place to another they could do it without their family members and thus they formed a new nomadic community.

Conquest of Nuevo Leon

Europeans arrived in the lands of Nuevo León in 1535. Nuevo León was part of the kingdom of Nueva Galicia, one of the two kingdoms that made up the viceroyalty of New Spain.

In 1577 the community of Santa Lucía, present-day Monterrey, was created and was founded by Alberto Del Canto. However, years later Luis Carvajal was assigned to continue the Conquest and the community of Santa Lucía was renamed San Luis Rey de Francia.

colonial period

The territory of Nuevo León was controlled for ten years by Luis Carvajal, until he was confined to jail. The imprisonment caused the villa San Luis Rey de Francia to be abandoned for almost ten years.

This settlement was built again in 1596 and was named the Metropolitan City of Our Lady of Monterrey.

At first life in that city was difficult. The settlers could barely survive, which is why it was necessary to create grain and flour warehouses to feed all its inhabitants and prevent the decline of the city.

Meanwhile, villas continued to be built around Monterrey. In Nuevo León, as in the other states of Mexico, the evangelization process was carried out. For this it was necessary to build churches, hospices and convents.

The process of evangelization throughout the territory of Mexico was quite strong, since they forced the indigenous people to do heavy work and they were punished if they did not accept the Catholic religion.

In 1786 the King of Spain decided to apply the administrative system that existed in Europe at that time.

As a result of this, New Spain was divided into 12 municipalities. Then, Nuevo León, Coahuila, Texas and the colony of Nuevo Santander were renamed the Municipality of San Luis Potosí.

Nuevo León during the Independence process

In 1810 the War of Independence began. For that it was necessary that both the peasants and the natives unite against the Spanish.

By 1812 the viceroyalty was divided into provinces, so Nuevo León was part of the internal eastern provinces.

Nuevo León after Independence

In 1821 with the Independence of Mexico, the territory was divided into 21 provinces and Nuevo León became one of these. Later, in the year 1824, Mexico is divided into states and Nuevo León was declared a free and sovereign state.

In 1825 the first political Constitution of the state of Nuevo León was created and its first governor was José María Parás.

contemporary period

The state of Nuevo León was dedicated to industrial development and had one of the best economies in Mexico.

During the 20th century in Nuevo León avenues were built and the road network was extended. This made trade easier and generated more income for the state. But economic development was affected by labor disputes between employers and workers.

Consequently, in 1922 the Maximum Labor Day Law was created, where it was established what the working day would be.

Some of the most important industries in Nuevo León during the 20th century were the Cuauhtémoc brewery, the Monterrey Iron and Steel Foundry Company, and the La Fama textile factory.

Social and economic problems in Nuevo León

As Nuevo León had industrialized, many families from nearby states moved to Monterrey in order to have a better quality of life.

This situation caused the population to grow remarkably; by the year 1950 the social and economic problems were beginning to be seen. Many people lived in misery and others seized other people’s land to create their homes there.

The houses created on other people’s lands were completely improvised and lacked public services, so their inhabitants were prone to contracting a greater number of diseases.

Consequently, to curb this situation, institutions such as Fomerrey and Provileon were created, with the aim of helping these people to solve their housing problem.

Nuevo León is currently one of the most prosperous states in Mexico.

References

New Lion. Retrieved from nationsencyclopedia.com
Region: State of Nuevo Leon, Mexico. Retrieved from oecd.org
History of Nuevo Leon. Recovered from explorandomexico.com

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