7 junio, 2024

Grammatical elements: what they are and examples

What are the grammatical elements?

The grammatical elements or grammatical categories are the words that make up a language, organized into groups or classes. In Spanish there are nine classes of grammatical elements: nouns, determiners, adjectives, verbs, pronouns, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, and interjections.

These elements or categories can be variables (nouns, determiners, verbs, pronouns and adjectives), and invariable (adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions and interjections).

Each of these elements fulfills a certain function in the language, such as indicating who performs the action (the subject), and the action itself with its complements (the predicate).

Variable grammatical elements

Some grammatical elements are said to be variable because their form can change. For example, nouns can be feminine or masculine, or be singular or plural (muchacheitherboytoboyyouI gardenednogardenis), and verbs vary their endings when conjugated (ameitheramaceamtoammastersamyou areetc.).

Nouns

They are the words that represent beings or animate and inanimate objects, concepts and ideas. In Spanish they can be masculine or feminine, common and proper. The noun or name is the head of the subject in a sentence, but it can also be present in the predicate.

They must coincide in number and gender with the articles, adjectives and verbs.

Examples of nouns in sentences:

Marcela plan to travel to home his parents tomorrow (Marcela, house and parents are nouns).
He cat I was looking for the mouse for all the kitchen.
Paris is the capital of France.
He notebook red is on the desk.
The Girls they will play in the basketball court of soccer.

determinants

They are words that go together with the noun, generally preceding it, and determine it by indicating place, number, possession, etc. The articles (definite and indefinite), demonstratives, numerals, possessives, etc. are determining.

Examples of determiners in sentences

That Maria was beautiful that day.
The boys had three horses in he barn.
To the boy are waiting for you in the sixth floor.
These young people do not want both Models.
Those ladies are victims of double working day.

Pronouns

They are words that can go in place of the noun, and that we use very often, such as: me, you, he, mine, his, that one, etc. There are personal, demonstrative, possessive, numeral, relative, interrogative, exclamatory, and indefinite pronouns.

There are words that according to their use can be determiners and pronouns. For example: «it is thatthe one with the yellow shirt” (pronoun), and “it is that man” (demonstrative determiner).

Examples of pronouns in sentences

if by my outhe I would no longer be with us.
the bike is hersforks that.
Tea I say that they they will come later.
Who not interested, you can goHE.
if you see some, us warn

verbs

They are those words that indicate the action, state, time or condition in the sentence. In Spanish, verbs appear in dictionaries in the infinitive, with three endings: ar, er, ir (amarcomersleepgo), and have numerous variations: tense (past, present, and future), mood (indicative, subjunctive, conditional, and imperative), number, and person. They also have three non-personal forms: the infinitive, the gerund, and the participle.

There are also regular verbs (those that maintain the root, such as A.Mar: A.Meither, A.Mace, A.Ma) and irregular (whose root changes when conjugated, such as: I am, you are, it is).

Examples of verbs in sentences

Marian wash and dry clothes.
They they are playing in the garden.
they passed every afternoon at the bookstore.
His father let of smoking does ten years.
Them like sing and laugh when are together.

adjectives

They are words that modify, complement or indicate some quality of the noun, with which they coincide in gender and number (“lace rosace red”). Adjectives can also indicate degrees: positive (the rose is red), comparative (this rose is redder than that one) and superlative (this rose is very red).

Examples of adjectives in sentences

Helena has a beautiful voice.
Horses fast they ran for the green Meadow.
Is a person intelligentsurely it will good.
He was a man skinny, silent.
Laura is more high than Sandra, and it is Beautifull.

invariable grammatical elements

They are those that maintain their form and do not need to agree in gender and number with other elements of the sentence (example: they arrive tomorrowshe arrives tomorrow).

adverbs

They are words that can modify the verb, an adjective or another adverb. They can be of time (today, yesterday, afternoon, soon, tomorrow, etc.), place (there, here, below, near, far, outside, inside, etc.), mode (badly, well, smoothly, regular, fast , etc.), quantity (a lot, little, too much, somewhat, almost, etc.), affirmation (yes, certainly, also, obvious, of course, etc.), denial (no, never, never, either), doubt ( perhaps, perhaps, perhaps, possibly, probably, perhaps, etc.).

Although they are invariable words, they can be modified with suffixes, such as malitogooditalittleitonowita).

Examples of adverbs in sentences

Gisela will arrive soon.
Today They will come to smoke.
Marina worked harshly to get that position.
If the book is not here must be thereon the table.
Susanna is not found goodtreat her lovingly.
I liked a lot the film, although it seemed that No it was going to end never.
If we speed up the pace, maybe let’s get there on time

prepositions

Prepositions are grammatical elements that serve to establish relationships between two words; this relationship varies according to the preposition used.

They are prepositions: to, before, under, fits, with, against, from, from, during, in, between, towards, hasta, through, for, by, according to, without, so, on, after, versus, via.

Examples of prepositions in sentences

Marcos is coming of acapulco via highway.
TO sometimes you can’t go against the opinion of the others.
During the Middle Ages women and cats lived low suspicion.
From years ago Alfredo works for achieve that goal.
Tomorrow they play Marines versus Firefighters, in Saint Joseph.
I want to talk to you about what happens between Marcia and Ramon.

conjunctions

Conjunctions are grammatical elements that act as links between words or sentences. They can be adversative (but, more, but), causal (for, because, as, then), comparative (so, so much, that, as), conditional (if, unless, whenever), copulative (and, and , nor, not only, not even), disjunctive (or, u), temporary (before, when, while), explanatory (that is, that is, that is), concessive (although, thus, even when, despite that, etc.), consecutive (so, so that, therefore, consequently), final (for, in order that, so that).

Examples of conjunctions in sentences

Are so big as your father.
We could have won but things did not work out as we expected.
Yeah Laura comes with Carlos we will be four, as long as have been given permission.
Carmen and Susana will intervene when the teacher says.
EITHER we took the train either let’s go by car because it is nightfalling.
We didn’t want to go in. but see when the next function was.
Although As said, we do not recommend the purchase of these shares.

interjections

They are terms or grammatical elements that serve to indicate moods or seek to capture the attention of the listener. They are identified by exclamation marks (!).

Examples of interjections in sentences

ohHeyLet’s go to the beach this Saturday!
ohohBut how beautiful you are, Susana!
ohBah!, I know my horse is going to win the race.
ohhey! Grandma has arrived!
ohohHow many people supporting our team!
ohOhit hurts me a lot!
ohOh! You sure are stubborn!

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