11 julio, 2024

Geography as a mixed science

Geography is a mixed science because it is made up of the union of the natural and social sciences; that is, it needs the contribution of other auxiliary knowledge to carry out its study.

At first, geography was a limited science, based on theoretical speculations, religious dogmas and empirical knowledge, although it evolved into a mixed science, thanks to man’s desire to know more about the planet he inhabited.

Over the years, industrial and technological developments facilitated research that corroborated, denied, or related the different geographical phenomena, as well as the different theories about the formation, distribution, and shape of the planet.

How did geography become a mixed science?

Geography was dedicated to studying the different components and characteristics of the Earth, as well as natural phenomena.

Progressively, he also dealt with the interaction of physical, biological and human elements, such as relief, bodies of water, climate, vegetation, fauna, natural resources, human activity, population distribution, territorial political division, among other issues.

The study of so many diverse topics made it necessary to use and gear other sciences such as physics, meteorology, biology, geology, astronomy, sociology, cartography, among others.

In this way, geography became a mixed, wide and varied science, which brings together various topics related to planet Earth.

Auxiliary sciences of geography

The auxiliary sciences are interrelated with geography as links that allow interdisciplinary studies to obtain broader and more detailed explanations of the different geographical phenomena.

In this way, physical, meteorological, biological, geological, cartographic, sociological, economic, mathematical, astronomical data, among others, can be processed to provide more reliable and valid results.

It provides information of a physical-natural nature of geographical interest, which provides data on the occurrence of natural phenomena, atmospheric, oceanic, geomorphological and environmental dynamics, as well as contributions on meteorology, among other data.


As a discipline derived from physics, it facilitates the study and forecast of the weather, its climatic changes and the phenomena that occur on Earth.


It helps to study the biological processes related to the natural environment, such as the distribution and evolution of living beings in relation to the delimitation of the different ecosystems.


It favors the study, evaluation and analysis of soils, their natural phenomena and mineral resources, by exploring the interaction of the Earth’s biophysiochemical environment.


It allows the visualization, projection and representation of the surface of geographical spaces, through the study and preparation of plans, maps and topographic charts, which facilitate knowledge of the relative position of these areas.


It collects and provides information regarding the exchange and coexistence of individuals with their geographical and social environment, facilitating the cultural understanding of society, based on various factors such as the distribution, classification and population growth of a given sector.


It promotes the generation of rational criteria regarding the use and administration of resources, according to geographic distribution and population density.

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