7 junio, 2024

Flora and Fauna of the Caribbean Region of Colombia

The flora and fauna of the Caribbean region of Colombia are diverse thanks to the variety of climates and existing ecosystems. Savannah plant species and wild fauna such as the tigrillo and flamingo abound.

Species such as the bocachico and the alligator predominate in its rivers, and in the sea there are dolphins and sharks. Some of the animal and plant species found in this region are in danger of extinction, such as the guartinaja and the manatee.

Its flora has savannah and mountain species. Also of swamps and lagoons, such as mangroves and large coral reefs, especially in the Rosario Islands, in Cartagena.

Flora

Plant species in this region vary according to soil and climate. Like the relief, the flora also presents many contrasts.

For example, in La Guajira, desert species such as cacti, thorny scrub, and cardonales predominate.

There are three other types of wild plants predominant in the warm areas of the region: the bignoniáceas or trumpet vines, the rubiáceas (commonly called rubia or galio blanco, from the coffee family) and the euphorbiaceaeplant that has more than 7500 species.

In the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta the vegetation is páramo, being the frailejón the most emblematic representative. The magnoliopsida species abounds in the páramo of La Guajira.

Among the most representative flora species of the region are the cayenne, the coconut tree, the mesquite and the ipomoea.

the cayenne

This ornamental plant is one of the symbols of the region. It is known by the names of Chinese rose, papo or cayenne (hibiscus rosa-sinensis).

It is a shrub with flowers with large petals of yellow, orange, scarlet and pink. It belongs to the Malvaceae family.

The coconut tree (coco nucifera)

This plant grows along the entire Colombian Caribbean coast and in the Pacific Ocean, and belongs to the Arecaceae family.

The mesquite (prosopis juliflora)

It is a leguminous shrub of the Fabaceae family.

Ipomoea (bells)

This plant belongs to the convolvuláceas family, and has a sometimes creeping climbing stem. It has variegated shaped leaves and produces large colorful flowers of blue, purple, red and white.

The corozo, the rubber tree and the mamey are other representative tree species of this region.

poison chamomile (Hippomane mancinella)

Like many other species of the euphorbiaceae family, the poisonous manzanillo is a very toxic plant and its fruit can be deadly for humans. It is located in the Caribbean coastal areas, mainly in the area of ​​La Guajira.

Uvito (cordia alba)

Very characteristic plant of the Caribbean regions of Colombia, being also widely used in the traditions and customs of the area. Small in size, it has white flowers and a scaly gray bark. It gives off a smell similar to that produced by sugar canes.

Fauna

The most representative native wildlife of the region is the following:

The tigrillo

The tigrillo, also known as the lesser tiger cat, inhabits forests with dense vegetation. It measures between 40 and 55 centimeters and has a tail of about 40 centimeters. It weighs between 2 and 3.5 kilos.

the marmoset monkey

This animal lives in the forests and humid areas of the region. It usually stays among the vegetation, no more than 5 meters high.

The flamenco

It lives in swamps and lagoons. It measures between 130 and 192 centimeters in length, and weighs about 4 kilograms.

The macaw

It lives in the high areas of the forests and jungles near the rivers. It is a bird with blue, red, yellow and white plumage, with a long tail and a strong beak.

The Manatee

The manatee lives in warm waters and feeds on aquatic plants. They are called water cows because of their large bodies, whose weight ranges from 200 to 700 kilograms.

It lives in the wetlands of the departments of Bolívar, Atlántico and Magdalena, and is in danger of extinction.

The Armadillo

Also known as the black tattoo, it measures about 50 centimeters and stands out for its speed and, above all, the frame that protects the head and back. However, it is in danger of extinction due to its predators and poaching by humans to get its meat.

the bocachico

Originally from the Magdalena River basin, it is a freshwater fish that usually inhabits the bottom of swamps. They can measure up to 30 centimeters and are highly exposed due to overfishing, deforestation of their environment, or pollution.

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