8 junio, 2024

Elements of communication: concept, what they are and examples

What are the elements of communication?

The comunication elements They are the components of the communicative process that allow the transmission of information between one or more people.

Communication comes from Latin I will communicatewhich means “to share something”, and although this process is shown with great sophistication among us humans, animals and plants also have their own procedures for the same.

Since the human being began to speak, the process has been perfecting itself. In fact, for communication to be effective and fulfill the objective of transmitting the message, at least 7 key elements must be present: sender, receiver, code, message, communication channel, noise and feedback.

These elements are involved when sending and receiving a message, and when one of them fails, there is a risk that communication will not take place efficiently. Communication can occur orally or in writing, gestures or signals.

What are the elements of communication?

There are 7 elements of communication:

Transmitter. Receiver. Code. Message. Communication channel. Noise Feedback.

Let us see below the role of each one and its importance in the communicative context.

Transmitter

The sender is the one who begins the process, determines the message by deciding what he wants to say and how he wants to say it. Naturally, in the vast majority of cases this process is unconscious.

In this sense, it is he who creates, imagines and sends the message. He does it in several steps, which are:

Choosing what and how to say something. Choose the words so that your message is understandable. Present the information to the receiver (tone of voice, body language and a few other things, such as your appearance and facial expressions matter here).

In order to send the message, the sender must share the same communication codes and channels as the receiver(s), because if this is not the case, their message will not be understood, and ultimately, communication will not be established. The issuer can be a person, an organization, a country.

Issuer Examples

When we send an email informing our recipient of something. A teacher when he asks students for various topics to develop work. The president of a country when addressing the citizens.

Receiver

The receiver is the one who receives the message and interprets or decodes it. You must necessarily know the code and channel of the sender so that communication can be established and you can understand the message.

It can be a voluntary or involuntary receiver: if it participates actively in the communication it is voluntary; it is involuntary when he witnesses the communicative act and the issuer does not specifically address him.

When you decode the message, the possibility of a response from you is raised. Thus it becomes in turn an issuer. It must be noted that both the sender and the receiver exchange their positions in the communicative scheme, depending on whether they send or receive a message (who is speaking and who is listening).

receiver examples

The person who receives an email and reads it. The students, who listen to what the teacher tells them. Citizens listening to the president’s speech.

Code

In communication, the code is the set of symbols, signs and rules used by the sender to send the message. It is essential that the receiver knows and shares it, for communication to be effective.

They can be oral or written, but also non-linguistic.

code samples

The various languages ​​that human beings speak, with their grammar and spelling rules. Traffic signs (non-linguistic code example). The Braille writing system or Morse code.

Message

The message is the information that the sender sends and the receiver receives through a communication channel. The message can be from ideas, thoughts or concepts, transmitted through a common code.

The message can also be verbal, non-verbal, written or visual.

message examples

The content of an email, a letter, etc. The topics that the teacher asks the students to develop, as well as the delivery dates and the extension of the same. A TV commercial or news.

Communication channel

The channel is the physical medium by which the message is transmitted. There are several: air (when it is oral communication), paper, computers (when it is written communication).

Examples of communication channel

Face-to-face communication requires air to convey the message: a person says something, the receiver listens and decodes it. We say that air is the channel because sound is transmitted through air. Telephones, radio, TV, electronic devices are also channels. The paper when the message is written, but technology allows it to also be read on the same devices, be they mobile phones, computers, tablets, etc.

Noise

Noise or interference is everything that distorts the message, from the sender. It can be environmental, from the sender itself, from the receiver or even from the message itself. In other words, it is what prevents the message from being fully understood.

examples of noise

When there are environmental sounds that prevent the message from being heard correctly (physical noise). When a person when speaking intercalates words in a language that the receiver does not handle (semantic noise). When we get distracted by reading or listening to a message (psychological noise).

feedback

We must bear in mind that communication is bidirectional, that is, the sender and the receiver continuously exchange roles in the process: when the sender sends a message, the receiver receives it, decodes it and responds, and becomes the sender in turn. , and the original sender in receiver.

Feedback helps both parties to know if the messages have been interpreted correctly, allowing communication to flow normally.

Feedback Examples

Feedback is given in conversations between two or more people. When we reply to an email or letter. When students turn in exactly what the teacher asked for.

The context in communication

We could include an eighth element, the context. It is the situation that surrounds the communicative act and decisively influences the understanding of the messages. It is the time and place where the interaction occurs, and it can be as important as the rest of the previous elements.

The context can be physical, social, historical, cultural, psychological or chronological. Knowing what the context is and communicating correctly is what is called linguistic competence: knowing what to say depending on the moment and the place where we are.

For example, we may feel comfortable talking about our problems with a friend, but not in the classroom. A teacher who swears in his circle of friends cannot say it when he is teaching. That is the context.

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