7 junio, 2024

Ecological floors of Bolivia

The ecological flats of Bolivia They are different ecosystems that can be found in this country. They are characterized above all by being at different altitudes above sea level, which means that they have different elements.

The relief, and therefore the height above sea level, is one of the elements that most influences the climate of ecosystems. For this reason, since Bolivia is a country with great differences in altitude, it is also one of the countries with the greatest biodiversity.

In general, ecological floors are usually classified into six different types, depending on their altitude and the characteristics they present. In Bolivia it is possible to find the six ecological floors in different areas of the country.

Types of ecological floors in Bolivia

The most common classification that is usually made of ecological floors is the following: macrothermal floor or hot zone, subtropical floor, mesothermal floor or temperate zone, cold or microthermal floor, moorland floor, and icy floor.

1. Macrothermal floor or hot zone

This ecological first floor is located between sea level and 900 meters. It has characteristics of a tropical climate, that is, warm temperatures all year round (average between 25 and 30° C) and abundant rainfall.

In Bolivia this climate can be observed in the Amazon jungle area. Some of the most representative plants of this ecological floor are cocoa and cassava.

2. Subtropical floor

The subtropical floor, located between the hot and temperate levels of the earth, is normally between 900 and 1,800 meters. It is characterized above all by having a very stable subtropical climate throughout the year.

In fact, this climate is one of those with the fewest thermal variations throughout the year (22-25° C). In Venezuela it is known as the «coffee floor», since this plant grows very well in this type of ecological floors. In Bolivia it is found mainly in the Chaco area.

3. Mesothermal floor or temperate zone

This third floor is normally between 1,800 and 2,500 meters above sea level. The temperatures are usually very mild, with an annual average of approximately 18 °C.

The mesothermal floor is one of those with the greatest variability of animal and plant species. It represents one of the most fertile areas in the world, and also one of the most exploited by intensive agriculture. In Bolivia this ecological floor can be found in the areas of the Andes valleys.

4. Cold or microthermal floor

This floor is between 2,500 and 3,400 meters. Temperatures are much lower, close to 10 °C throughout the year.

In Bolivia this climate is present in the intermediate zones of the Andes, as well as in the altiplano. The most important crop on the microthermal floor is the potato, which grows very well at this temperature. Therefore, it is an important element of the economy of the cities in this area.

5. Wasteland floor

The páramo floor is between 3,400 and 4,800 meters, and has temperatures ranging from 0 °C to 8 °C.

It is characterized by having vegetation highly adapted to cold. This zone is located in the upper parts of the Andes, below the perpetual snow zones.

Although there are not many farms on this floor, in some regions you can find wheat plantations. It is also common to see livestock farms, especially cattle.

6. Icy floor

This floor is characterized by being the area of ​​perpetual snow: places where temperatures never rise below 0 °C and, therefore, the snow never melts.

It is also in this area where most of the country’s glaciers can be seen. In Bolivia the icy floor is present in the highest peaks of the Andes.


Bolivian climate. Retrieved from es.wikipedia.org.
Bolivian climate. Recovered from boliviaturismo.com.bo.

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