7 junio, 2024

Cultural manifestations: origin, characteristics, types, examples

The cultural manifestations They are all the expressions and feelings that reflect the cultural and social identity and the values ​​of a community, which are communicated and transmitted from one generation to another. To understand the concept of cultural manifestations, reference must be made to two key terms: culture and cultural identity.

Culture can be defined as a set of material, spiritual, affective and intellectual characteristics of a society or a social group. Meanwhile, cultural identity refers precisely to that whole set of values, beliefs and modes of behavior that function as a cohesive factor for a group of people and that gives individuals a sense of belonging.

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Origin

Determining the origin of cultural manifestations necessarily leads us to consider the source of culture itself. If we consider that each human behavior is built from the progressive elaboration of previous simple behaviors, it can be seen more clearly how culture is being formed.

The cumulative cultural transmission could be considered as the point of origin of all cultural manifestation. The cultural baggage is acquired by a mixture of individual learning and social learning. The latter is usually carried out through teaching and imitation.

In this way, cultural manifestations are inherited and can sometimes be adjusted from generation to generation.

Characteristics

– They are transmitted from generation to generation, which is why they are considered as inherited.

– It is made up of tangible and intangible elements that express collective life.

– Connects a community in time (the past with the present and this with the future).

– They can be modified or transformed through a process of collective recreation.

– They reinforce the sense of identity and belonging of the community.

– They function as a differentiating element compared to other groups.

Guys

Culture is made up of symbols, values, attitudes, knowledge, which are usually manifested through tangible or material elements, but also through non-tangible and immaterial expressions. Therefore, a first classification would be into tangible cultural manifestations and intangible cultural manifestations.

Tangible or material cultural manifestations

They are all expressions that have physical substance and that can be preserved or restored in some way. For example, there are works of architecture, painting, sculpture, ceramics, goldsmithing, clothing, personal ornaments, furniture, work implements, musical instruments, and other physical expressions of culture.

Intangible or spiritual cultural manifestations

They are those without physical substance, which project the way of life of that community, as well as the history, philosophy, values ​​and way of thinking. Examples of them are the linguistic variants, proverbs, legends and myths, theatrical performances and dances.

Examples of cultural manifestations in Mexico

Cultural manifestations in Mexico have great diversity, produced by the cultural mix of more than 50 indigenous peoples, successors of pre-Hispanic societies.

The day of the Dead

One of the most admired and well-known indigenous traditions of Mexican culture. It is a tribute to the deceased, which consists of giving them an offering that includes photos, drinks, articles, flowers, food, everything they enjoyed in life.

The belief is that on the night of November 1, the dead can visit their living relatives and take what is placed on the altar to remember their time in life. The typical elements of that day are puff pastries, bread of the dead, cempaxúchitl flowers and sugar skulls.

Ritual ceremony of the flyers

It is a dance associated with fertility that belongs to the Totonacs of the state of Veracruz. The ceremony begins when four young people climb a recently cut tree trunk, while another plays melodies in honor of the sun, the four winds and the cardinal points with a flute and a drum.

The youngsters tied by ropes jump into the void to imitate the flight of birds and descend to the ground. The rite aims to express respect for nature, the spiritual universe and the harmony between them. This is one of the eight cultural manifestations of Mexico considered as Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO.

Examples of cultural manifestations in Venezuela

Venezuela has a rich cultural combination, because on the one hand there is the European influence (especially the Spanish, Portuguese and Italian cultures) and on the other there is the cultural heritage of the indigenous and Africans.

During the colonial era, the miscegenation was between indigenous, Spanish and African, but later another mixture of races was registered with the wave of European immigrants during World War II and Latin Americans with regard to oil exploitation.

Dancing Devils of Yare

This is one of the seven cultural manifestations of Venezuela that are part of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO. The ceremony takes place on Corpus Christi Day, a holiday of the Roman Catholic Church. It is a typical tradition of small communities on the Venezuelan central coast.

It consists of the backward dance of a group of young people and children disguised as masked devils, before the Holy Sacrament. The music that accompanies this procession is string and percussion instruments, as well as maracas with which it seeks to ward off evil spirits.

The dancers, called «promeseros» end up surrendering submissively before the Blessed Sacrament, thus symbolizing the triumph of good over evil.

Carnivals of El Callao

It is a cultural practice typical of El Callao, a town located in the south of Bolívar state, which has more than 100 years of history. It is a way of celebrating the multiculturalism that arose from the arrival of other populations, especially the Afro-Antillean, regarding the mining exploitation of the area.

These are parades that have come to group up to 3 thousand participants during the months of January to March. Several roles stand out, such as that of the “madamas”, which would be the Antillean matrons who dance with colorful dresses; the young “mediopintos” who joke and amuse the public; the “miners” and the “devils” who dance with whips in hand to maintain order.

Examples of cultural manifestations in Peru

Peruvian culture arises from the combination of ethnic groups that inhabited the Andean territory, specifically indigenous groups and Spanish Creoles, as well as a certain influence from Afro-Peruvian and Asian groups.

Peruvian gastronomy

It is one of the most varied cuisines in the world in which almost 500 typical dishes are estimated. It is the product of the fusion of different techniques and traditions from ancient Peru, Spanish cuisine, the Moorish influence and other culinary customs of sub-Saharan Africa.

It is also considered that French, Chinese-Cantonese and Japanese immigrants from the 19th century impacted Peruvian cuisine with their flavors, making it what it is today. Among the main ingredients are potatoes, sweet potatoes, chili peppers, custard apples, lucuma, achiote, fish, quinoa, kañiwa, kiwicha, tarwi and purple corn.

Some of the most outstanding dishes of the coastal style are ceviches and chupes, as well as mussels a la chalaca, tiradito, leche de tigre, parihuela and pickled fish.

The most recognized of Andean cuisine are the pachamanca, the tarwi stew, the stuffed rocoto, the olluquito with charqui, the huatia, the ocopa and the dishes made with guinea pig. There is also a wide variety of Creole and jungle dishes.

Taquile textile art

The fabrics of the island of Taquile, located on Lake Titicaca in Peru, is one of the manifestations considered Cultural Heritage of Humanity. Textile crafts date back to pre-Hispanic Andean cultures and are usually done by hand or on pedal looms.

The chullo and the belt-calendar are the most recognized garments. The first is a knitted hat with ear flaps, while the second is a wide belt where the annual cycles are reflected with the ritual activities. The designs maintain elements and symbols that have been transmitted from generation to generation.

Examples of cultural manifestations in Colombia

The culture of Colombia, like a large part of Latin American countries, arises from the fusion of different peoples, specifically the Spanish and the African, who brought customs, values ​​and beliefs to the indigenous groups that were settled there.

The knowledge of the jaguar shamans of Yuruparí

These shamans, who live near the Pirá Paraná river in the Colombian Amazon, transmit this traditional and universal knowledge that allows the world to maintain its balance. They consider it a wisdom given to them by the Ayowa or creators to take care of the territory that is sacred to them and to be guardians of nature.

The Yuruparí jaguars follow a calendar of ceremonial rituals that have a central element in common, the Hee Biki, a type of trumpet owned by each ethnic group. The ceremonies seek to preserve health, revitalize nature and preserve sacred spaces.

The normative system of the wayuus, applied by the pütchipü’üi

It is part of the cultural manifestations of Colombia considered as Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO.

The «palabreros» are people experienced in resolving conflicts between the Wayuu clans. The manifestation in this case would be the set of principles, procedures and rites that these authorities manage to regulate the social and spiritual conduct of their communities.

References

(2019, November 15). Wikipedia, The Encyclopedia. Retrieved from en.wikipedia.org
Castro, L. and Toro M. (2006). Evolution and culture: the origins of human cultural diversity. Book Magazine. Retrieved from revistadelibros.com
Colombian culture. (2019, December 17). Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved from wikipedia.org
UNESCO (sf) Intangible heritage. Recovered from
Mexican culture. (2019, December 14). Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved from wikipedia.org
Garcia, S. (s, f,) the 10 most important cultural manifestations of Peru. Recovered from .com
National Coordination of Cultural Heritage and Tourism (CONACULTA nd). The ABC of Cultural Heritage and Tourism. Mexico.
Venezuela Yours. (2019). Venezuelan culture. Recovered from venezuelatuya.com

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