**What are conventional measures?**

The **conventional measures** are those that are made using a standard of measurement accepted and recognized by the majority of people, which are called *standard patterns* of measure.

This is very convenient, since if everyone knows the pattern, when communicating the result of a measurement it will be immediately understandable to anyone.

One of the most used patterns is the meter (m), which belongs to the metric system.

In every home there is a tape measure to measure an infinite number of things: the height and contour of people or the dimensions of objects. If, for example, someone measures the length of a table and obtains a reading of 1.30 m, everyone who knows what a meter is immediately knows the exact length of the table, even if it is not in front of them.

In addition to lengths, there are other common measurements in the home, office or workshop. At home, when preparing a recipe by following the steps exactly, you have to weigh the solid ingredients and measure the volume of the liquids.

For its part, cooking time is also important, so it must also be measured carefully.

The measurements of mass, capacity, length and time have been measured with great frequency in the everyday and technical field, since time immemorial.

**What are the conventional measurements?**

**1. Dough**

Mass is related to the amount of matter an object has and also to its weight. It is important to note that mass and weight are different magnitudes, although they are often confused. The weight of a body has to do with how much force the Earth exerts on it, attracting it towards the surface.

The bodies with more mass are attracted with greater force, therefore their weight will be greater. Both mass and the magnitude of weight are proportional quantities, but by carefully choosing an appropriate system of units, their magnitudes can be made to coincide, numerically speaking.

In most countries, the standard most widely used to measure mass is the **kilogram (kg)**, being common to find that food is measured with this pattern. People also use it to establish their weight and therefore their mass.

The kilogram is one of the multiples of the gram, which is the central unit for measuring mass and also widely used in family kitchens.

Submultiples of the gram, such as the **milligram (mg)**are also widely used, but they are more appropriate standards for measuring very small masses (a milligram is one thousandth of a gram).

**Major units of mass**

grams (g)

kilogram (kg) = 1000 grams

hectogram (hg) = 100 grams

decagram (dag) = 10 grams

decigram (dg) = tenth of a gram

centigram (cg) = hundredth of a gram

milligram (mg) = thousandth of a gram

**2. Length**

The standard pattern of lengths is the **meter (m)**. When you want to measure the width of a table, for example, you place the zero of the tape measure on one end of the table, and extend the tape until it reaches the other end, observing the value it indicates. This is the desired measurement.

To measure close and familiar objects, the height of people, the dimensions of a room or the height of the ceiling, the meter is a very suitable standard.

**Small Object Lengths**

The dimensions of smaller objects, such as a glass of water, a bank card, or the dimensions of a chair, are determined by a submultiple of the meter called **centimeter (cm)**. One centimeter is equal to one hundredth of a meter, therefore:

1m=100cm

Homemade flexible tape measures usually measure 1.5 meters and on one side they have a scale divided into 150 cm. In turn, centimeters are divided into **millimeters (mm)**where 1 cm = 10 mm.

A tape measure usually has an inch scale on the other side. The inch is in common use in the British system of units, equal to 2.54 cm and is still used today as a measure of length in the United States.

If, on the contrary, what you want to measure is a much greater length, for example the distance between two cities, a multiple of the meter called a kilometer is preferred. A **kilometer (km)** is equivalent to 1000 meters.

**Major units of length**

meter (m)

centimeter (cm) = hundredth of a meter

decimeter (dm) = tenth of a meter

millimeter (mm) = thousandth of a meter

kilometer (km) = 1000 meters

**3. Units of capacity**

Capacity is the volume occupied by a liquid (or a gas). For example, it is used to know how much liquid can be stored in an empty container.

The base unit of capacity is the **liter (abbreviated L)**. For example, the containers of liquid milk, juices, wines and soft drinks, indicate on the label the liters they contain.

He **milliliter (ml)**is the thousandth part of a liter and is used to measure smaller amounts of liquid, for example the containers that bring individual portions.

If the liter is not an appropriate unit because the container is very large, such as a pool or a tank, then the liter is used. **hectoliter (HL)**since 1 HL is equal to 100 L.

**Main capacity units**

liter (L)

milliliter (ml) = thousandth of a liter

centiliter (cl) = hundredth of a liter

deciliter (dl) = tenth of a liter

decalitre (daL) = 10 liters

hectoliter (HL) = 100L

kiloliter (kL) = 1000L.

**4. Units of time**

There are many patterns for measuring time, depending on the length of the interval. Very short events are usually measured in seconds, the cooking time of many foods is measured in minutes, while the duration of a class can be a couple of hours.

The base unit for time is the second, despite how brief it may be. In addition, there are the following patterns:

24 hours = 1 day

60 minutes = 1 hour

1 minute = 60 seconds

If the time period is longer, such as the duration of a course, it is usually measured in weeks or months, like this:

1 month = 30 or 31 days

4 weeks = 1 month

1 semester = 6 months or 24 weeks.

1 trimester = 3 months or 12 weeks.

1 year = 365 days.

The only month that does not have at least 30 days is February, which has 28 days or 29 in leap years (these occur every four years).

**Main units of time**

seconds)

minute (min)

hour

day (24 hours)

week (7 days)

month (28,30,31 days)

decisecond (ds) = tenth of a second

centisecond (cs) = hundredth of a second

millisecond (ms) = thousandth of a second