7 junio, 2024

Bioclimatic zones of Colombia and their characteristics

The bioclimatic zones in Colombia They are the tropical rain forest, the tropical mountain, the tropical savannah, the tropical desert, and the páramo. These zones have unique conditions of fauna, flora and vegetation, climate and soils.

All this is determined by the geographical location, the relief and the atmospheric aspect so characteristic of the South American country, which is located in the warm zone of the Earth.

It should be noted that Colombia shows a predetermined relief by the Andes Mountains, being in turn surrounded by two oceans. This generates the development of three types of biomes in its space: tropical, desert and equatorial.

Bioclimatic zones of Colombia

1- Tropical rain forest

This type of bioclimate is located at an approximate height of 1000 meters above sea level. It is located in the region of the Amazon basin and the department of Chocó, specifically in the jungles of Catatumbo.

It is also distributed along the Pacific coast, the eastern slope of the eastern cordillera and the central region of Magdalena.

The representative climate is rainy, you can count on abundant and constant rains during almost the whole year. The temperature usually exceeds 27 °C.

The tropical rain forest has an extensive flora. The trees are usually gigantic in size, around 50 or 60 meters tall.

There are also large lianas, parasitic plants and vines. The fauna has a great diversity of birds, monkeys, turtles and anteaters, as well as a variety of insects.

The soils are hot, humid and dark. This is because large trees block light from entering.

2- Tropical mountain

These mountains are located in the Andean region, the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta and in the central mountain range.

The climate in these mountains is usually determined by altitude. These have a height greater than 3000 meters above sea level and the climatic temperature is between 12 and 17 °C.

In the fauna there are mainly the tigrillo, the howler monkey, the condor and other species.

3- Tropical savannah

The tropical savannahs are located in the eastern plains and in a large part of the Caribbean region, at an altitude of 1000 meters above sea level.

In the climatic field, the tropical savannah has two defined periods: one corresponds to the rainy season and the other to the dry season. These times are distributed in periods of six months. The temperature oscillates between 24 and 27 °C.

The flora of these areas is distinguished by dry forests, morichales and pastures. The trees are of medium size, reaching a height of about 10 meters. There is also a great diversity of shrubs and bushes.

Fauna abounds in the tropical savannah. Among the representative species of this area there are alligators, lizards and herons, among other species of birds.

4- Tropical desert

They are found in La Guajira, in Boyacá, in the Candelaria desert and in the Tatacoa desert. This bioclimatic zone has a high temperature that is above 29 °C.

The rain is extremely scarce, usually 7 months of the year go by without rain. Although it has high temperatures and little rain, the winds are strong and absorb moisture from the environment.

The flora and fauna of this particular area is scarce due to the climatic conditions. However, plants and animals manage to adapt.

The characteristic plants of tropical deserts are cacti. These reach a height of up to 5 meters and develop roots long enough to have easy access to water.

The animals that inhabit this type of bioclimatic zone are lizards, snakes, spiders, a variety of rodents and eagles.

5- Moors

The páramos are found mainly in the Andean region and in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, specifically in the páramos of Sumapaz and Chingaza. It should be noted that these moors are located at an approximate height of 3,000 and 4,500 meters above sea level.

The climate of this area is very cold with strong winds. It has little rain and frequent snowfalls. The upper temperature is 12 °C and the lower reaches approximately 6 °C.

Little diversity is found in the fauna due to climatic conditions. Among the inhabiting animals are bears, pumas and deer, as well as other small species.

Among the flora, the frailejón stands out. This is the plant that has managed to adapt to low temperatures.


Ch., OR (1995). Orlando Rangel Ch. Cornell University.
Delgado, F. A. (1977). Economic geography of Colombia. Bogota: Cultural Editions.
Florez, A. (2003). Colombia: evolution of its reliefs and modeling. Bogota: National University of Colombia.
U., CC (2002). Páramos and High Andean ecosystems of Colombia in hotspot condition & global climatic tensor. Institute of Hydrology, Meteorology and Environmental Studies.
National University of Colombia, C.d. (1974). Rainfall in the climate of the humid equatorial Andes of Colombia. University of Texas.

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