8 junio, 2024

Advantages and disadvantages of the Porfiriato

The advantages and disadvantages of the porfiriato They are a characteristic of the government of Porfirio Díaz in Mexico, between 1876 and 1911. General Porfirio Díaz (1830-1915), in his 35-year term, transformed Mexico economically by founding a strong State with political stability.

It began in 1876, after overthrowing the government of Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada, through a military attack. In the decades that he governed, Porfirio Díaz promoted measures and reforms that transformed the structure of the country.

He increased foreign investment, which developed agriculture, mining, and road infrastructure. As a counterpart, the difference between classes increased violently, and reduced the original peoples to slavery.

Porfirio Díaz resigned from the presidency on May 25, 1911, eleven months after the outbreak of the Mexican Revolution, he left the country and went into exile in France, where he would die in 1915.

Advantages of the Porfiriato

19,000 kilometers of railways were built with foreign investment and the telegraph network was created to communicate the entire country.
By encouraging foreign investment, improvements were made in mining, agriculture, oil, among others. This brought with it the creation of a national industry, which led, in Mexico, to its first Industrial Revolution.
In 1891 the law establishing education as free, secular and compulsory was regulated.
The Naval Military School was founded, and the Mexican Navigation Company, Transatlántica Mexicana, and Naviera del Pacífico were created.
As maritime traffic increased, several ports were conditioned, such as Veracruz, Manzanillo, Salina Cruz and Tampico. Through the office of the lighthouse service, lighthouses and beacons were installed at different points where necessary.
Public spending was reduced, with proper administration. Greater control of income was exercised. The new taxes that were created did not hinder trade.
The National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) was created by direct order of Díaz himself. The development of the arts and literature, especially painting, was promoted.
Thanks to the restructuring of the external and internal debts, he gained the confidence of large investors, who agreed to grant loans. Mexico became a major exporter of raw materials worldwide.

Disadvantages of the Porfiriato

It generated the politics of the Porfiriato, it was the great concentration of land, in which those who worked it were not their owners. The peons worked with the system of raya stores, where they exchanged the vouchers for products. It was the latifundia system.
The industrialization and modernization of the country was in the hands of a minority and only foreign investors were allowed to do business.
The era was marked by electoral fraud, repression and corruption. The distance between the social classes was increasing.
The oligarchy, minority, but economically powerful, left a population of more than thirteen million Mexicans in extreme poverty.
Added to this was the systematic exploitation of the indigenous population, which was relegated to slavery. Díaz ordered the areas of exploitation of aborigines, the most notable being those of Yucatán and Valle Nacional. After causing a massacre to take away their land, those who remained were enslaved by the large landowners.
The peasants were also taken from their lands by order of Díaz himself. All unoccupied land was to be confiscated, and many peasants were deprived of their land, which was given to many foreigners.
All of this was the breeding ground for the Revolution led by Francisco Madero to take place, in which Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata had active participation.
In 1910, approximately 11,000 private haciendas controlled 57% of the national territory, and 95% of peasants and indigenous peoples were landless. The church once again had privileges and collected tithes from the indigenous and peasants in the form of seeds, which affected them negatively, since the church sold the seeds very cheaply to the large producers, who preferred to buy them from the church for the lowest prices. low.

References

Porfiriato. Taken from .com.

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