6 junio, 2024

14 Cultures of the World of History and Present

Different cultures of the world They have existed throughout human history. Religious beliefs, government systems, survival methods and moral laws have crossed paths, even if this has meant a death sentence for some.

From the Sumerians to modern civilizations, man has come a long way of discoveries, growth and wars.

Each culture has left behind a legacy to its successors and has contributed in different ways to the development of humanity, from areas such as writing, to particular inventions such as the wheel.

It is important to emphasize that it is based on cultural diversity and the encounters and disagreements between peoples that man follows his path of growth.

Notable World Cultures

1- Sumerians

First settlers of what would be the first civilization: Mesopotamia, that piece of land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, also known as the fertile crescent. Although the origin of the Sumerians is not known for sure, there are records of their existence from 3500 BC. c.

It was there where the first permanent human settlements were developed and where the invention of agriculture would take place thanks to the fertility of the land.

It was they who created the first city-states, controlled by monarchs. The Sumerian people were the first to use writing.

With cuneiform writing they created the first written system of laws and were the precursors of scientific and medical studies.

Together with the Egyptians, Sumerian architectural constructions are the oldest in the world.

2- Egyptians

Ancient Egyptian culture emerged in North Africa shortly after the Sumerian settlements and lasted for approximately 3,000 years, until the Roman conquest.

The Egyptians made great advances in areas of knowledge, such as mathematics, medicine, and architecture.

They are world renowned for their pyramids, which even today some claim are extraterrestrial constructions.

Its temples and its art also stand out, mainly paintings and statues dedicated to decorating funerary enclosures, very important to the Egyptians for their belief in a life after death.

Its economic system depended on agriculture, mining, and trade with other regions.

3- Ancient Greece

Starting from the Minoan civilization, the Greek culture makes its appearance on the island of Crete approximately 3000 years BC. c. Its history is classified into six stages: Minoan, Mycenaean, Archaic, Classical, and Hellenistic Greece.

Greece became one of the largest empires in the West before Rome. They had a strong emphasis on philosophy and the pursuit of knowledge.

They were pioneers in establishing democracy as a political system and their notions are still taken into account by modern society today.

The art and architecture of Greece have also been important references for the Western world.

4- Chinese

It is one of the oldest cultures in the world, respected for its philosophy and art. With more than 4000 thousand years, the Chinese Empire was one of the strongest in the Asian continent.

For many years it also functioned under a system of emperors, although currently it functions under the hierarchy that bears the name of the four occupations.

At present, China groups more than 58 ethnic groups. Some of his most recognized contributions have been Taoism, Confucianism, paper and the compass, among others.

5- Nordic

The Nordic culture comes from northern Europe and Scandinavia, and is located approximately in the year 200 AD. c.

Their mythology was very rich, and they are said to be the best preserved versions of Germanic mythology. These stories were transmitted orally through poetry.

From the year 700 AD. C. the Nordics emigrated to Great Britain, Greenland, Iceland and even Russia, and from there they began to be known as Vikings.

It is worth mentioning that the term «Viking» actually referred to a brotherhood of warriors who carried out the conquests.

6- Islamic culture

Islam is a culture that starts from its religious bases. It begins in the year 622 in Mecca with the prophet Muhammad as leader. They occupy the eastern part of Asia and North Africa, and their language is Arabic.

Since it professes practical guidelines applicable to daily life, this religion governs in an important way over the legislation and the political and economic system of the Arab world.

The Qur’an is their holy book, where the word of Allah is recorded. Daily prayer is essential to the Islamic religion, as are fasting and adherence to the rules of their religion.

7- Mayan culture

The Mayans were a very important civilization in the Mesoamerican territory, specifically in southern Mexico, Guatemala, Belize and part of Honduras.

Its archaic period began about 8,000 years B.C. C., but it was not until 2000 a. C. that the Preclassic stage began when what is currently known as the Mayan culture began to develop.

They grew foods like beans and corn. They were warriors and this played an important role in their lives.

They were great scholars of natural phenomena, mathematics, and developed the most advanced writing system in America.

Around the 18th century, almost a century after the Spanish Conquest, the city of Itzá fell, the last standing of the Mayan civilization.

8- Incas

They were the most important civilization of pre-Columbian America. They mainly occupied territories of Peru, but they spread throughout almost the entire Andean mountain range.

Its origins are calculated around the year 1200 d. C. and lasted until the year 1525. Their religion was polytheistic, they venerated the elements of nature as gods and their language was Quechua.

They had a large army, a highly advanced transportation and courier system, and were particularly adept at urban planning.

One of the best-known legacies of the Incas was Machu Picchu, located at 2,490 meters above sea level.

9- Yanomami

It is one of the largest indigenous communities today. The Yanomami are located between the state of Amazonas in Venezuela, and in the north of Brazil. They are semi-nomadic and live by growing bananas, yams and other vegetables, as well as hunting and fishing.

Death and funeral rites are very important to the Yanomami culture. Among these rituals, the best known is the ingestion of the ashes of deceased relatives, which is supposed to return their spirit to the family.

Although the Yanomami culture does not have the same recognition as the great American civilizations, its main value lies in having understood and respected the land and its resources.

10- Western culture

Although this is perhaps one of the broadest categories, there is no doubt that modern Western culture encompasses an important part of European and American societies, even imposing itself on other base cultures.

In general terms, it can be said that it is the fusion of legacies from previous cultures, such as Greek philosophy, Judeo-Christian morality, Renaissance art and the sociological perception of the French Enlightenment.

Western culture is closely linked to capitalism and the ideology of consumption, and could be considered a colonizing culture, since it has even included part of the Asian continent, one of the most respectful of its cultural roots.

11- Toltec culture

Pre-Columbian culture settled in Mesoamerica. Some of the points where they developed the greatest splendor were in Huapalcalco in Tulancingo and the city of Tollan-Xicocotitlan (current Tula de Allende in Hidalgo, Mexico).

Its greatest apogee occurred between the 10th and 12th centuries AD. C, a time in which culture was unifying various peoples, until forming a single civilization of monarchical regime.

12- Nazca culture

Civilization that emerged in the valleys of the current department of Ica, in Peru, with Cahuachi being the main center of this culture. It developed between the 1st and 7th centuries, being one of the most notable ancient towns in America.

Although they were experts in textile weaving or ceramics, their best-known contribution is the famous Nazca lines, a series of geoglyphs located in the Jumana pampas that represent enormous geometric, human and animal figures.

13-Tiwanaku

The Tiahuanacos, as they are also known, were a culture that lived around Lake Titicaca, specifically in the department of La Paz in western Bolivia.

It was a pre-Inca culture that based its economy on livestock and agriculture. They had a highly developed concept of technology, as well as architecture, as evidenced by the archaeological remains of Tiwanaku, the spiritual and political center of this culture.

14-Padaung

The Padaung are an ethnic group whose women are known as the long-necked women or giraffe women of Thailand. Bronze rings are placed on the neck, legs and ankles that make them look like a dragon, a very important animal in their ancient culture.

It seems that one of the reasons why the rings began to be used is to protect themselves from tigers, although today it is maintained especially because it attracts tourism.

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