8 junio, 2024

12 Social Movements in Mexico (Last 100 Years)

The social movements in Mexico They have emerged since the beginning of the 21st century until today willing to fight for the social, political, economic and cultural rights, mainly of the citizenry.

However, each and every one of them has its roots in the convulsed past 20th century, where the Mexican nation experienced great changes since the triumph of the Mexican Revolution in 1910.

Since then, Mexico has followed an uninterrupted history of social protests and mobilizations that have allowed it to get rid of not only the dictatorship of Porfirio Díaz.

It was possible to improve public education by decreeing it secular, free and compulsory, and initiate a series of reforms that led to the creation of PEMEX (Petróleos Mexicanos company), the establishment of the female vote, the signing of the Free Trade Agreement and the arrival at power of the National Action Party.

In the first half of the 20th century, the peasant, worker and trade union movements were the ones who raised their voices, today the Mexican social movements have managed to constitute a true collective effort where the struggles for the rights of all social classes have been included.

Main Mexican social movements today

1- Movement «Our daughters back home»

Formed by relatives and friends of young women who have been murdered or are missing in the State of Chihuahua. The movement arose in 2001, when 5 young people disappeared in a period of two months in Chihuahua.

The movement is made up of professionals and human rights defenders who fight for justice, visibility and denunciations of feminicides, and at the same time provide support to the families of the disappeared women.

The movement aims to protect the rights of Mexican women, since according to figures from the National Citizen Observatory on Femicide between 2013-2014, six women were murdered daily in Mexico.

The rapes, deaths and constant disappearances have become a terrible reality for those who live in Ciudad Juárez and Chihuahua, where being a woman is living in danger of death.

It is estimated that since 1993 more than 600 girls and women have been murdered in Ciudad Juárez.

The victims are usually low-income women, students, workers, and employees of maquiladoras (factories and assembly centers of foreign companies that operate in Mexico).

The movement Our daughters back home constantly struggle to denounce gender violence and request help from the State.

2- Citizen movement for justice June 5

Dated June 5, 2009, it is made up of the parents and representatives who lost their children that day as a result of a terrible event in which 49 babies died after the daycare where they were on fire caught fire.

The ABC nursery located in Hermosillo, Sonora, did not have the minimum security and civil protection requirements, which meant that the fire could not be controlled.

The nursery belonged to the Mexican Institute of Social Security, which allowed the institutions to define the standards of the place in relation to safety and child care.

The ABC nursery did not have the necessary facilities to deal with an emergency of such magnitude, which is why the parents originated the movement with the aim of obtaining justice for what happened.

Eight years have passed and the authorities have not convicted anyone for the events despite the fact that each year the movement carries out different actions to attract national and international attention through marches, cultural festivals, cycles of informative conferences, support talks and legal work.

Currently they continue to fight for those involved to receive criminal punishment in different international and local instances.

3- Movement for peace, with justice and dignity

It is a movement that was born as a response from Mexican civil society to the violence suffered by the country as a consequence of the war against drug trafficking.

The movement began on April 26, 2011 when the poet Javier Sicilia called on Mexicans to demonstrate against the violence produced by criminal groups and state security forces.

The poet started the movement as a result of the death of his son at the hands of organized crime.

The main objectives of the movement are:

Clarify murders and disappearances
Put an end to the war strategy and take a citizen security approach
Fight corruption and impunity
Fight the proceeds of crime
Provide care to the youth involved
Establish a true participatory democracy.

The movement continues its fight today advocating for the thousands of disappearances that occur in Mexico year after year.

4- Movement of San Salvador Atenco

The federal government, led by President Vicente Fox, issued a series of expropriation treaties in October 2001 for agricultural land in Texcoco. The reason was that that area would be where the New Mexico City Airport would be located.

This decision was met with the refusal of the peasants, as well as ecological and agrarian organizations or institutions linked to the Zapatista Army of National Liberation (EZLN).

They organized and marched to the Official Residence of Los Pinos, where they maintained resistance for months. However, the most tense fronts occurred in the city of San Salvador de Atenco, where during the riots, the security forces and the social movement clashed, resulting in the death of two people (Alexis Benhumea and Javier Cortés) and more. of 200 arrests.

Finally, Vicente Fox canceled the construction project for the metropolitan airport in Texcoco.

5- Movement of writers through Ciudad Juárez

The movement arose after the death of the poet, activist and human rights defender Susana Chávez, who was found murdered and mutilated in Ciudad Juárez on January 6, 2011.

As a result of the tragic event, different writers organized themselves and started a cultural movement that is still in force today.

Its objective is to practice culture permanently through the recovery of public spaces taken over by criminals, the use of social networks and blogs, and constant reading in forums, cafes, buses, libraries, and schools.

The movement is still active and readings and different meetings have already been held in more than 170 cities in 26 countries in America, Asia, Europe and Africa.

The ideal is and continues to be to promote reading as a form of protest and fight against violence and especially gender violence in Mexico and the world.

6- LGBTTTI Movement

Since 1971, the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transsexual, transvestite, transgender and intersex movement (LGBTTTI) was part of the mobilizations of the Mexican left against government repression.

A turning point with which they managed to consolidate themselves as a true movement in the country, was with the celebration in 1979 of the first homosexual Pride march in Mexico.

Since then, it has been thanks to constant pressure from groups such as the Homosexual Revolutionary Action Front or the Homosexual Liberation Group, that the LGBTTTI movement became an important part of Mexican politics and society.

One of its greatest milestones was that the recognition of the equal rights of families made up of LGBTTTI people and equal civil marriage was approved in the plenary session of the constituent assembly in January 2017.

However, despite the many victories obtained by the movement, discrimination based on sexual orientation is a daily problem in Mexico, which is why there is still a long way to go in the fight for respect for sexual diversity.

Associations such as the Arcoíris Foundation in Mexico continue to work to improve the situation of this minority in danger of social exclusion.

7- Movement «Save Wirikuta»

Considered one of the most important ecological movements in Mexico. It arose with the objective of fighting for the protection of Wirikuta, a town located in the state of San Luis de Potosí which, in addition to being a natural reserve of great wealth, is the sacred territory of the Wixarika people.

It is believed that this area is the matrix of life of that people and all their culture, who consider Wirikuta as the sacred heart of Mexico.

Since 2005, the Mexican government has granted concessions to foreign companies to exploit mineral resources in areas that are even protected natural areas.

This has caused alarm and discontent among civil society and environmental groups who today lead the «Save Wirikuta» movement.

8- Movement #yoSoy132

The movement, of great international fame, arose in 2012 when the current Mexican president Enrique Peña Nieto went to the Universidad Iberoamericana and was greeted with booing and insults.

The next day, the media announced that the protesters were people from outside the university and paid to be there.

Hence, the students, 131 in all, made a video on social networks clarifying that the demonstrations had been made of their own free will.

From then on, the statement #yosoy132 was used on numerous social networks, and the movement began to organize itself throughout Mexico, carrying out massive marches demanding transparency and democratization of the media, education, and the economy. A movement that is still present.

9- Movements for the Ayotzinapa case

The movement arose in 2014, when in a series of protests and demonstrations between the municipal police, the Mexican army, and students from the Ayotzinapa Rural Normal School, journalists and civilians were injured, nine were killed, and 43 students disappeared.

The families of the disappeared students continue to demand that the State answer for these disappearances. However, the government and the army remain silent.

Hence the emergence of this movement whose objective has been to inform the international community and put pressure on Mexican civil society through numerous marches and protests.

The purpose is to do justice and obtain information regarding the whereabouts of those 43 students.

10- Magisterial Movements

They reached a great peak between 2015 and 2016, after protests, marches, confrontations with the police, blockades and sit-ins, with the aim of rejecting the educational reform proposals established by former President Enrique Peña Nieto.

Numerous teacher leaders have been arrested, however, the movements continue to put pressure on the government.

11- Movements against gasoline

Emerged in the current year 2017 and carried out by different unions, unions, activists and citizens with the aim of opposing the «gasolinazo», namely the…

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